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Research

Members

Achievements

JST CREST (Core Research of Evolutional Science & Technology) research promotion program
"Creation of Human-Harmonized Information Technology for Convivial Society" Research Area
Studies on cellphone-type tele-operated androids
transmitting human presence

 

Publications

Book Chapters
Panikos Heracleous, Denis Beautemps, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Norihiro Hagita, "Towards Augmentative Speech Communication", Chapter in Speech and Language Technologies, InTech, Vukovar, Croatia, pp. 303-318, June, 2011.
Abstract: Speech is the most natural form of communication for human beings and is often described as a uni-modal communication channel. However, it is well known that speech is multi-modal in nature and includes the auditive, visual, and tactile modalities (i.e., as in Tadoma communication \citeTADOMA). Other less natural modalities such as electromyographic signal, invisible articulator display, or brain electrical activity or electromagnetic activity can also be considered. Therefore, in situations where audio speech is not available or is corrupted because of disability or adverse environmental condition, people may resort to alternative methods such as augmented speech.
BibTeX:
@InCollection{Heracleous2011,
  Title                    = {Towards Augmentative Speech Communication},
  Author                   = {Panikos Heracleous and Denis Beautemps and Hiroshi Ishiguro and Norihiro Hagita},
  Booktitle                = {Speech and Language Technologies},
  Publisher                = {{InT}ech},
  Year                     = {2011},

  Address                  = {Vukovar, Croatia},
  Editor                   = {Ivo Ipsic},
  Month                    = Jun,
  Pages                    = {303--318},

  Abstract                 = {Speech is the most natural form of communication for human beings and is often described as a uni-modal communication channel. However, it is well known that speech is multi-modal in nature and includes the auditive, visual, and tactile modalities (i.e., as in Tadoma communication \cite{TADOMA}). Other less natural modalities such as electromyographic signal, invisible articulator display, or brain electrical activity or electromagnetic activity can also be considered. Therefore, in situations where audio speech is not available or is corrupted because of disability or adverse environmental condition, people may resort to alternative methods such as augmented speech.},
  File                     = {Heracleous2011.pdf:Heracleous2011.pdf:PDF;InTech-Towards_augmentative_speech_communication.pdf:http\://www.intechopen.com/source/pdfs/15082/InTech-Towards_augmentative_speech_communication.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Url                      = {http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/towards-augmentative-speech-communication}
}
Overviews
Kohei Ogawa, Shuichi Nishio, Takashi Minato, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Android Robots as Tele-presence Media", Biomedical Engineering and Cognitive Neuroscience for Healthcare: Interdisciplinary Applications, Medical Information Science Reference, Pennsylvania, USA, pp. 54-63, September, 2012.
Abstract: In this chapter, the authors describe two human-like android robots, known as Geminoid and Telenoid, which they have developed. Geminoid was developed for two reasons: (1) to explore how humans react or respond the android during face-to-face communication and (2) to investigate the advantages of the android as a communication medium compared to traditional communication media, such as the telephone or the television conference system. The authors conducted two experiments: the first was targeted to an interlocutor of Geminoid, and the second was targeted to an operator of it. The results of these experiments showed that Geminoid could emulate a human’s presence in a natural-conversation situation. Additionally, Geminoid could be as persuasive to the interlocutor as a human. The operators of Geminoid were also influenced by the android: during operation, they felt as if their bodies were one and the same with the Geminoid body. The latest challenge has been to develop Telenoid, an android with a more abstract appearance than Geminoid, which looks and behaves as a minimalistic human. At first glance, Telenoid resembles a human; however, its appearance can be interpreted as any sex or any age. Two field experiments were conducted with Telenoid. The results of these experiments showed that Telenoid could be an acceptable communication medium for both young and elderly people. In particular, physical interaction, such as a hug, positively affected the experience of communicating with Telenoid.
BibTeX:
@Article{Ogawa2012b,
  Title                    = {Android Robots as Tele-presence Media},
  Author                   = {Kohei Ogawa and Shuichi Nishio and Takashi Minato and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Journal                  = {Biomedical Engineering and Cognitive Neuroscience for Healthcare: Interdisciplinary Applications},
  Year                     = {2012},

  Month                    = Sep,
  Pages                    = {54-63},

  Abstract                 = {In this chapter, the authors describe two human-like android robots, known as Geminoid and Telenoid, which they have developed. Geminoid was developed for two reasons: (1) to explore how humans react or respond the android during face-to-face communication and (2) to investigate the advantages of the android as a communication medium compared to traditional communication media, such as the telephone or the television conference system. The authors conducted two experiments: the first was targeted to an interlocutor of Geminoid, and the second was targeted to an operator of it. The results of these experiments showed that Geminoid could emulate a human’s presence in a natural-conversation situation. Additionally, Geminoid could be as persuasive to the interlocutor as a human. The operators of Geminoid were also influenced by the android: during operation, they felt as if their bodies were one and the same with the Geminoid body. The latest challenge has been to develop Telenoid, an android with a more abstract appearance than Geminoid, which looks and behaves as a minimalistic human. At first glance, Telenoid resembles a human; however, its appearance can be interpreted as any sex or any age. Two field experiments were conducted with Telenoid. The results of these experiments showed that Telenoid could be an acceptable communication medium for both young and elderly people. In particular, physical interaction, such as a hug, positively affected the experience of communicating with Telenoid.},
  Address                  = {Pennsylvania, USA},
  Category                 = {解説記事},
  Chapter                  = {6},
  Doi                      = {10.4018/978-1-4666-2113-8.ch006},
  Editor                   = {Jinglong Wu},
  File                     = {Ogawa2012b.pdf:Ogawa2012b.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  ISBN                     = {9781466621138},
  Publisher                = {Medical Information Science Reference},
  Url                      = {http://www.igi-global.com/chapter/android-robots-telepresence-media/69905}
}
Invited Talks
Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Minimum design of interactive robots", In International Symposium on Pedagogical Machines CREST 国際シンポジウム-「ペダゴジカル・マシンの探求」, 東京, March, 2015.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Ishiguro2015,
  Title                    = {Minimum design of interactive robots},
  Author                   = {Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Booktitle                = {International Symposium on Pedagogical Machines CREST 国際シンポジウム-「ペダゴジカル・マシンの探求」},
  Year                     = {2015},

  Address                  = {東京},
  Month                    = Mar,

  Category                 = {招待講演},
  File                     = {Ishiguro2015a.pdf:pdf/Ishiguro2015a.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Language                 = {en}
}
Shuichi Nishio, "Teleoperated android robots - Fundamentals, applications and future", In China International Advanced Manufacturing Conference 2014, Mianyang, China, October, 2014.
Abstract: I will introduce our various experiences on teleoperated android robots, how their are manufactured, scientific findings, applications to real world issues and how they will be used in our society in future.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Nishio2014a,
  Title                    = {Teleoperated android robots - Fundamentals, applications and future},
  Author                   = {Shuichi Nishio},
  Booktitle                = {China International Advanced Manufacturing Conference 2014},
  Year                     = {2014},

  Address                  = {Mianyang, China},
  Month                    = Oct,

  Abstract                 = {I will introduce our various experiences on teleoperated android robots, how their are manufactured, scientific findings, applications to real world issues and how they will be used in our society in future.},
  Category                 = {招待講演},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Language                 = {en}
}
Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Android Philosophy", In Sociable Robots and the Future of Social Relations: Proceedings of Robo-Philosophy 2014, IOS Press, vol. 273, Aarhus, Denmark, pp. 3, August, 2014.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Ishiguro2014b,
  Title                    = {Android Philosophy},
  Author                   = {Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Booktitle                = {Sociable Robots and the Future of Social Relations: Proceedings of Robo-Philosophy 2014},
  Year                     = {2014},

  Address                  = {Aarhus, Denmark},
  Editor                   = {Johanna Seibt and Raul Hakli and Marco N\orskov},
  Month                    = Aug,
  Pages                    = {3},
  Publisher                = {IOS Press},
  Volume                   = {273},

  Category                 = {招待講演},
  Doi                      = {10.3233/978-1-61499-480-0-3},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Language                 = {en},
  Reviewed                 = {y},
  Url                      = {http://ebooks.iospress.nl/volumearticle/38527}
}
Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Telenoid : A Teleoperated Android with a Minimalistic Human Design", In Robo Business Europe, Billund, Denmark, May, 2014.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Ishiguro2014a,
  Title                    = {Telenoid : A Teleoperated Android with a Minimalistic Human Design},
  Author                   = {Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Booktitle                = {Robo Business Europe},
  Year                     = {2014},

  Address                  = {Billund, Denmark},
  Month                    = May,

  Category                 = {招待講演},
  Day                      = {26-28},
  Grant                    = {{CREST}},
  Language                 = {en}
}
Hiroshi Ishiguro, "The Future Life Supported by Robotic Avatars", In The Global Mobile Internet Conference Beijing, Beijing, China, May, 2014.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Ishiguro2014,
  Title                    = {The Future Life Supported by Robotic Avatars},
  Author                   = {Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Booktitle                = {The Global Mobile Internet Conference Beijing},
  Year                     = {2014},

  Address                  = {Beijing, China},
  Month                    = May,

  Category                 = {招待講演},
  Day                      = {5-6},
  File                     = {ishiguro2014a.pdf:pdf/ishiguro2014a.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Language                 = {en}
}
Shuichi Nishio, "The Impact of the Care‐Robot ‘Telenoid’ on Elderly Persons in Japan", In International Conference : Going Beyond the Laboratory - Ethical and Societal Challenges for Robotics, Delmenhorst, Germany, February, 2014.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Nishio2014,
  Title                    = {The Impact of the Care‐Robot ‘Telenoid’ on Elderly Persons in Japan},
  Author                   = {Shuichi Nishio},
  Booktitle                = {International Conference : Going Beyond the Laboratory - Ethical and Societal Challenges for Robotics},
  Year                     = {2014},

  Address                  = {Delmenhorst, Germany},
  Month                    = Feb,

  Category                 = {招待講演},
  Day                      = {13-15},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Language                 = {en}
}
Ryuji Yamazaki, "Teleoperated Android in Elderly Care", In Patient@home seminar, Denmark, February, 2014.
Abstract: We explore the potential of teleoperated androids, which are embodied telecommunication media with humanlike appearances. By conducting pilot studies in Japan and Denmark, we investigate how Telenoid, a teleoperated android designed as a minimalistic human, affect people in the real world. As populations age, the isolation issue of senior citizens is one of the leading issues in healthcare promotion. In order to solve the isolation issue resulting in geriatric syndromes and improve seniors’ well-being by enhancing social connectedness, we propose to employ Telenoid that might facilitate their communication with others. By introducing Telenoid into care facilities and senior’s homes, we found various influences on the elderly with or without dementia. Most senior participants had positive impressions of Telenoid from the very beginning, even though, ironically, their caretaker had a negative one. Especially the elderly with dementia showed strong attachment to Telenoid and created its identity imaginatively and interactively. In a long-term study, we also found that demented elderly increasingly showed prosocial behaviors to Telenoid and it encouraged them to be more communicative and open. With a focus on elderly care, this presentation will introduce our field trials and discuss the potential of interactions between the android robot and human users for further research.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Yamazaki2014b,
  Title                    = {Teleoperated Android in Elderly Care},
  Author                   = {Ryuji Yamazaki},
  Booktitle                = {Patient@home seminar},
  Year                     = {2014},

  Address                  = {Denmark},
  Month                    = Feb,

  Abstract                 = {We explore the potential of teleoperated androids, which are embodied telecommunication media with humanlike appearances. By conducting pilot studies in Japan and Denmark, we investigate how Telenoid, a teleoperated android designed as a minimalistic human, affect people in the real world. As populations age, the isolation issue of senior citizens is one of the leading issues in healthcare promotion. In order to solve the isolation issue resulting in geriatric syndromes and improve seniors’ well-being by enhancing social connectedness, we propose to employ Telenoid that might facilitate their communication with others. By introducing Telenoid into care facilities and senior’s homes, we found various influences on the elderly with or without dementia. Most senior participants had positive impressions of Telenoid from the very beginning, even though, ironically, their caretaker had a negative one. Especially the elderly with dementia showed strong attachment to Telenoid and created its identity imaginatively and interactively. In a long-term study, we also found that demented elderly increasingly showed prosocial behaviors to Telenoid and it encouraged them to be more communicative and open. With a focus on elderly care, this presentation will introduce our field trials and discuss the potential of interactions between the android robot and human users for further research.},
  Category                 = {招待講演},
  Day                      = {5},
  Grant                    = {CREST; SPIR; 基盤B},
  Language                 = {en}
}
Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Studies on very humanlike robots", In International Conference on Instrumentation, Control, Information Technology and System Integration, Aichi, September, 2013.
Abstract: Studies on interactive robots and androids are not just in robotics but they are also closely coupled in cognitive science and neuroscience. It is a research area for investigating fundamental issues of interface and media technology. This talks introduce the series of androids developed in both Osaka University and ATR and propose a new information medium realized based on the studies.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Ishiguro2013a,
  Title                    = {Studies on very humanlike robots},
  Author                   = {Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Booktitle                = {International Conference on Instrumentation, Control, Information Technology and System Integration},
  Year                     = {2013},

  Address                  = {Aichi},
  Month                    = Sep,

  Abstract                 = {Studies on interactive robots and androids are not just in robotics but they are also closely coupled in cognitive science and neuroscience. It is a research area for investigating fundamental issues of interface and media technology. This talks introduce the series of androids developed in both Osaka University and ATR and propose a new information medium realized based on the studies.},
  Category                 = {招待講演},
  Day                      = {14},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Language                 = {en}
}
Hiroshi Ishiguro, "The Future Life Supported by Robotic Avatars", In Global Future 2045 International Congress, NY, USA, June, 2013.
Abstract: Robotic avatars or tele-operated robots are already available and working in practical situations, especially in USA. The robot society has started. In our future life we are going to use various tele-operated and autonomous robots. The speaker is taking the leadership for developing tele-operated robots and androids. The tele-opereated android copy of himself is well-known in the world. By means of robots and androids, he has studied the cognitive and social aspects of human-robot interaction. Thus, he has contributed to establishing this research area. In this talk, he will introduce the series of robots and androids developed at the Intelligent Robot Laboratory of the Department of Systems Innovation of Osaka University and at the Hiroshi Ishiguro Laboratory of the Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International (ATR).
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Ishiguro2013,
  Title                    = {The Future Life Supported by Robotic Avatars},
  Author                   = {Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Booktitle                = {Global Future 2045 International Congress},
  Year                     = {2013},

  Address                  = {NY, USA},
  Month                    = Jun,

  Abstract                 = {Robotic avatars or tele-operated robots are already available and working in practical situations, especially in USA. The robot society has started. In our future life we are going to use various tele-operated and autonomous robots. The speaker is taking the leadership for developing tele-operated robots and androids. The tele-opereated android copy of himself is well-known in the world. By means of robots and androids, he has studied the cognitive and social aspects of human-robot interaction. Thus, he has contributed to establishing this research area. In this talk, he will introduce the series of robots and androids developed at the Intelligent Robot Laboratory of the Department of Systems Innovation of Osaka University and at the Hiroshi Ishiguro Laboratory of the Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International (ATR).},
  Category                 = {招待講演},
  Grant                    = {{CREST}},
  Language                 = {en}
}
Hideyuki Nakanishi, "Robotic Social Telepresence", In Anglo-Japanese Seminar on Technology and Social Interaction, London, UK, September, 2011.
BibTeX:
@INPROCEEDINGS{Nakanishi2011a,
  author = {Hideyuki Nakanishi},
  title = {Robotic Social Telepresence},
  booktitle = {Anglo-Japanese Seminar on Technology and Social Interaction},
  year = {2011},
  address = {London, UK},
  month = Sep,
}
Journal Papers
Junya Nakanishi, Hidenobu Sumioka, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Impact of Mediated Intimate Interaction on Education: A Huggable Communication Medium that Encourages Listening", Frontiers in Psychology, section Human-Media Interaction, vol. 7, no. 510, pp. 1-10, April, 2016.
Abstract: In this paper, we propose the introduction of human-like communication media as a proxy for teachers to support the listening of children in school education. Three case studies are presented on storytime fieldwork for children using our huggable communication medium called Hugvie, through which children are encouraged to concentrate on listening by intimate interaction between children and storytellers. We investigate the effect of Hugvie on children's listening and how they and their teachers react to it through observations and interviews. Our results suggest that Hugvie increased the number of children who concentrated on listening to a story and was welcomed by almost all the children and educators. We also discuss improvement and research issues to introduce huggable communication media into classrooms, potential applications, and their contributions to other education situations through improved listening.
BibTeX:
@Article{Nakanishi2016,
  author =   {Junya Nakanishi and Hidenobu Sumioka and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =    {Impact of Mediated Intimate Interaction on Education: A Huggable Communication Medium that Encourages Listening},
  journal =  {Frontiers in Psychology, section Human-Media Interaction},
  year =     {2016},
  volume =   {7},
  number =   {510},
  pages =    {1-10},
  month =    Apr,
  abstract = {In this paper, we propose the introduction of human-like communication media as a proxy for teachers to support the listening of children in school education. Three case studies are presented on storytime fieldwork for children using our huggable communication medium called Hugvie, through which children are encouraged to concentrate on listening by intimate interaction between children and storytellers. We investigate the effect of Hugvie on children's listening and how they and their teachers react to it through observations and interviews. Our results suggest that Hugvie increased the number of children who concentrated on listening to a story and was welcomed by almost all the children and educators. We also discuss improvement and research issues to introduce huggable communication media into classrooms, potential applications, and their contributions to other education situations through improved listening.},
  day =      {19},
  doi =      {10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00510},
  file =     {Nakanishi2016.pdf:pdf/Nakanishi2016.pdf:PDF},
  url =      {http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00510}
}
Kaiko Kuwamura, Takashi Minato, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Inconsistency of Personality Evaluation Caused by Appearance Gap in Robotic Telecommunication", Interaction Studies, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 249-271, November, 2015.
Abstract: In this paper, we discuss the problem of the appearance of teleoperated robots that are used as telecommunication media. Teleoperated robots have a physical existence that increases the feeling of copresence, compared with recent communication media such as cellphones and video chat. However, their appearance is xed, for example stuffed bear, or a image displayed on a monitor. Since people can determine their partner's personality merely from their appearance, a teleoperated robot's appearance which is different from the operator might construct a personality that conflicts with the operator's original personality. We compared the appearances of three communication media (nonhuman-like appearance robot, human-like appearance robot, and video chat) and found that due to the appearance gap, the human-like appearance robot prevented confusion better than the nonhuman-like appearance robot or the video chat and also transmitted an appropriate atmosphere due to the operator.
BibTeX:
@Article{Kuwamura2013a,
  Title                    = {Inconsistency of Personality Evaluation Caused by Appearance Gap in Robotic Telecommunication},
  Author                   = {Kaiko Kuwamura and Takashi Minato and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Journal                  = {Interaction Studies},
  Year                     = {2015},

  Month                    = NOV,
  Number                   = {2},
  Pages                    = {249-271},
  Volume                   = {16},

  Abstract                 = {In this paper, we discuss the problem of the appearance of teleoperated robots that are used as telecommunication media. Teleoperated robots have a physical existence that increases the feeling of copresence, compared with recent communication media such as cellphones and video chat. However, their appearance is xed, for example stuffed bear, or a image displayed on a monitor. Since people can determine their partner's personality merely from their appearance, a teleoperated robot's appearance which is different from the operator might construct a personality that conflicts with the operator's original personality. We compared the appearances of three communication media (nonhuman-like appearance robot, human-like appearance robot, and video chat) and found that due to the appearance gap, the human-like appearance robot prevented confusion better than the nonhuman-like appearance robot or the video chat and also transmitted an appropriate atmosphere due to the operator.},
  Acknowledgement          = {This research was supported by JST, CREST.},
  File                     = {Kuwamura2013a.pdf:pdf/Kuwamura2013a.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Keywords                 = {teleoperated android; telecomunication; robot; appearance; personality},
  Language                 = {en},
  Reviewed                 = {Y}
}
Jakub Zlotowski, Hidenobu Sumioka, Shuichi Nishio, Dylan Glas, Christoph Bartneck, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Persistence of the Uncanny Valley: the Influence of Repeated Interactions and a Robot's Attitude on Its Perception", Frontiers in Psychology, June, 2015.
Abstract: The uncanny valley theory proposed by Mori has been heavily investigated in the recent years by researchers from various fields. However, the videos and images used in these studies did not permit any human interaction with the uncanny objects. Therefore, in the field of human-robot interaction it is still unclear what and whether an uncanny looking robot will have an impact on an interaction. In this paper we describe an exploratory empirical study that involved repeated interactions with robots that differed in embodiment and their attitude towards a human. We found that both investigated components of the uncanniness (likeability and eeriness) can be affected by an interaction with a robot. Likeability of a robot was mainly affected by its attitude and this effect was especially prominent for a machine-like robot. On the other hand, mere repeated interactions was sufficient to reduce eeriness irrespective of a robot's embodiment. As a result we urge other researchers to investigate Mori's theory in studies that involve actual human-robot interaction in order to fully understand the changing nature of this phenomenon.
BibTeX:
@Article{Zlotowski,
  Title                    = {Persistence of the Uncanny Valley: the Influence of Repeated Interactions and a Robot's Attitude on Its Perception},
  Author                   = {Jakub Zlotowski and Hidenobu Sumioka and Shuichi Nishio and Dylan Glas and Christoph Bartneck and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Journal                  = {Frontiers in Psychology},
  Year                     = {2015},

  Month                    = JUN,

  Abstract                 = {The uncanny valley theory proposed by Mori has been heavily investigated in the recent years by researchers from various fields. However, the videos and images used in these studies did not permit any human interaction with the uncanny objects. Therefore, in the field of human-robot interaction it is still unclear what and whether an uncanny looking robot will have an impact on an interaction. In this paper we describe an exploratory empirical study that involved repeated interactions with robots that differed in embodiment and their attitude towards a human. We found that both investigated components of the uncanniness (likeability and eeriness) can be affected by an interaction with a robot. Likeability of a robot was mainly affected by its attitude and this effect was especially prominent for a machine-like robot. On the other hand, mere repeated interactions was sufficient to reduce eeriness irrespective of a robot's embodiment. As a result we urge other researchers to investigate Mori's theory in studies that involve actual human-robot interaction in order to fully understand the changing nature of this phenomenon.},
  Doi                      = {10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00883},
  File                     = {Jakub2014a.pdf:pdf/Jakub2014a.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Language                 = {en},
  Url                      = {http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00883/abstract}
}
Martin Cooney, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Importance of Touch for Conveying Affection in a Multimodal Interaction with a Small Humanoid Robot", International Journal of Humanoid Robotics, vol. 12, issue 01, pp. 1550002 (22 pages), 2015.
Abstract: To be accepted as a part of our everyday lives, companion robots will require the capability to recognize people’s behavior and respond appropriately. In the current work, we investigated which characteristics of behavior could be used by a small humanoid robot to recognize when a human is seeking to convey affection. A main challenge in doing so was that human social norms are complex, comprising behavior which exhibits high spatiotemporal variance, consists of multiple channels and can express different meanings. To deal with this difficulty, we adopted a combined approach in which we analyzed free interactions and also asked participants to rate short video-clips depicting human-robot interaction. As a result, we are able to present a wide range of findings related to the current topic, including on the fundamental role (prevalence, affectionate impact, and motivations) of actions, channels, and modalities; effects of posture and a robot’s behavior; expected reactions; and contributions of modalities in complementary and conflicting configurations. This article extends the existing literature by identifying some useful multimodal affectionate cues which can be leveraged by a robot during interactions; we aim to use the acquired knowledge in a small humanoid robot to provide affection during play toward improving quality of life for lonely persons.
BibTeX:
@Article{Cooney2013b,
  Title                    = {Importance of Touch for Conveying Affection in a Multimodal Interaction with a Small Humanoid Robot},
  Author                   = {Martin Cooney and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Journal                  = {International Journal of Humanoid Robotics},
  Year                     = {2015},
  Pages                    = {1550002 (22 pages)},
  Volume                   = {12, issue 01},

  Abstract                 = {To be accepted as a part of our everyday lives, companion robots will require the capability to recognize people’s behavior and respond appropriately. In the current work, we investigated which characteristics of behavior could be used by a small humanoid robot to recognize when a human is seeking to convey affection. A main challenge in doing so was that human social norms are complex, comprising behavior which exhibits high spatiotemporal variance, consists of multiple channels and can express different meanings. To deal with this difficulty, we adopted a combined approach in which we analyzed free interactions and also asked participants to rate short video-clips depicting human-robot interaction. As a result, we are able to present a wide range of findings related to the current topic, including on the fundamental role (prevalence, affectionate impact, and motivations) of actions, channels, and modalities; effects of posture and a robot’s behavior; expected reactions; and contributions of modalities in complementary and conflicting configurations. This article extends the existing literature by identifying some useful multimodal affectionate cues which can be leveraged by a robot during interactions; we aim to use the acquired knowledge in a small humanoid robot to provide affection during play toward improving quality of life for lonely persons.},
  Acknowledgement          = {We’d like to thank everyone who supported this project. This research was supported by JST, CREST.},
  Doi                      = {10.1142/S0219843615500024},
  File                     = {Cooney2014a.pdf:pdf/Cooney2014a.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Keywords                 = {Affection; multi-modal; play; small humanoid robot, human-robot interaction},
  Language                 = {en},
  Reviewed                 = {Y}
}
Martin Cooney, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Affectionate Interaction with a Small Humanoid Robot Capable of Recognizing Social Touch Behavior", ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 32, December, 2014.
Abstract: Activity recognition, involving a capability to automatically recognize people's behavior and its underlying significance, will play a crucial role in facilitating the integration of interactive robotic artifacts into everyday human environments. In particular, social intelligence in recognizing affectionate behavior will offer value by allowing companion robots to bond meaningfully with persons involved. The current article addresses the issue of designing an affectionate haptic interaction between a person and a companion robot by a) furthering understanding of how people’s attempts to communicate affection to a robot through touch can be recognized, and b) exploring how a small humanoid robot can behave in conjunction with such touches to elicit affection. We report on an experiment conducted to gain insight into how people perceive three fundamental interactive strategies in which a robot is either always highly affectionate, appropriately affectionate, or superficially unaffectionate (emphasizing positivity, contingency, and challenge respectively). Results provide insight into the structure of affectionate interaction between humans and humanoid robots—underlining the importance of an interaction design expressing sincerity, liking, stability and variation—and suggest the usefulness of novel modalities such as warmth and cold.
BibTeX:
@Article{Cooney2014c,
  Title                    = {Affectionate Interaction with a Small Humanoid Robot Capable of Recognizing Social Touch Behavior},
  Author                   = {Martin Cooney and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Journal                  = {{ACM} Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems},
  Year                     = {2014},

  Month                    = Dec,
  Number                   = {4},
  Pages                    = {32},
  Volume                   = {4},

  Abstract                 = {Activity recognition, involving a capability to automatically recognize people's behavior and its underlying significance, will play a crucial role in facilitating the integration of interactive robotic artifacts into everyday human environments. In particular, social intelligence in recognizing affectionate behavior will offer value by allowing companion robots to bond meaningfully with persons involved. The current article addresses the issue of designing an affectionate haptic interaction between a person and a companion robot by a) furthering understanding of how people’s attempts to communicate affection to a robot through touch can be recognized, and b) exploring how a small humanoid robot can behave in conjunction with such touches to elicit affection. We report on an experiment conducted to gain insight into how people perceive three fundamental interactive strategies in which a robot is either always highly affectionate, appropriately affectionate, or superficially unaffectionate (emphasizing positivity, contingency, and challenge respectively). Results provide insight into the structure of affectionate interaction between humans and humanoid robots—underlining the importance of an interaction design expressing sincerity, liking, stability and variation—and suggest the usefulness of novel modalities such as warmth and cold.},
  Acknowledgement          = {This research was supported by {JST, CREST}},
  Doi                      = {10.1145/2685395},
  File                     = {Cooney2014b.pdf:pdf/Cooney2014b.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Keywords                 = {human-robot interaction; activity recognition; small humanoid companion robot; affectionate touch behavior; intelligent systems},
  Language                 = {en},
  Reviewed                 = {Y},
  Url                      = {http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=2688469.2685395}
}
Rosario Sorbello, Antonio Chella, Carmelo Cali, Marcello Giardina, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Telenoid Android Robot as an Embodied Perceptual Social Regulation Medium Engaging Natural Human-Humanoid Interaction", Robotics and Autonomous Systems Journal, vol. 62, issue 9, pp. 1329-1341, September, 2014.
Abstract: The present paper aims to validate our research on Human-Humanoid Interaction (HHI) using the minimalist humanoid robot Telenoid. We conducted the human-robot interaction test with 142 young people who had no prior interaction experience with this robot. The main goal is the analysis of the two social dimensions ("Perception" and "Believability" ) useful for increasing the natural behaviour between users and Telenoid. We administered our custom questionnaire to human subjects in association with a well defined experimental setting ("ordinary and goal-guided task"). A thorough analysis of the questionnaires has been carried out and reliability and internal consistency in correlation between the multiple items has been calculated. Our experimental results show that the perceptual behavior and believability, as implicit social competences, could improve the meaningfulness and the natural-like sense of human-humanoid interaction in everyday life taskdriven activities. Telenoid is perceived as an autonomous cooperative agent for a shared environment by human beings.
BibTeX:
@Article{Sorbello2013a,
  Title                    = {Telenoid Android Robot as an Embodied Perceptual Social Regulation Medium Engaging Natural Human-Humanoid Interaction},
  Author                   = {Rosario Sorbello and Antonio Chella and Carmelo Cali and Marcello Giardina and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Journal                  = {Robotics and Autonomous Systems Journal},
  Year                     = {2014},

  Month                    = SEP,
  Pages                    = {1329-1341},
  Volume                   = {62, issue 9},

  Abstract                 = {The present paper aims to validate our research on Human-Humanoid Interaction (HHI) using the minimalist humanoid robot Telenoid. We conducted the human-robot interaction test with 142 young people who had no prior interaction experience with this robot. The main goal is the analysis of the two social dimensions ("Perception" and "Believability" ) useful for increasing the natural behaviour between users and Telenoid. We administered our custom questionnaire to human subjects in association with a well defined experimental setting ("ordinary and goal-guided task"). A thorough analysis of the questionnaires has been carried out and reliability and internal consistency in correlation between the multiple items has been calculated. Our experimental results show that the perceptual behavior and believability, as implicit social competences, could improve the meaningfulness and the natural-like sense of human-humanoid interaction in everyday life taskdriven activities. Telenoid is perceived as an autonomous cooperative agent for a shared environment by human beings.},
  Doi                      = {10.1016/j.robot.2014.03.017},
  File                     = {Sorbello2013a.pdf:pdf/Sorbello2013a.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Keywords                 = {Telenoid; Geminoid; Social Robot; Human-Humanoid Robot Interaction},
  Language                 = {en},
  Reviewed                 = {Y},
  Url                      = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S092188901400061X}
}
Kaiko Kuwamura, Kurima Sakai, Takashi Minato, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Hugvie: communication device for encouraging good relationship through the act of hugging", Lovotics, vol. Vol. 1, Issue 1, pp. 10000104, February, 2014.
Abstract: In this paper, we introduce a communication device which encourages users to establish a good relationship with others. We designed the device so that it allows users to virtually hug the person in the remote site through the medium. In this paper, we report that when a participant talks to his communication partner during their first encounter while hugging the communication medium, he mistakenly feels as if they are establishing a good relationship and that he is being loved rather than just being liked. From this result, we discuss Active Co-Presence, a new method to enhance co-presence of people in remote through active behavior.
BibTeX:
@Article{Kuwamura2014a,
  Title                    = {Hugvie: communication device for encouraging good relationship through the act of hugging},
  Author                   = {Kaiko Kuwamura and Kurima Sakai and Takashi Minato and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Journal                  = {Lovotics},
  Year                     = {2014},

  Month                    = Feb,
  Pages                    = {10000104},
  Volume                   = {Vol. 1, Issue 1},

  Abstract                 = {In this paper, we introduce a communication device which encourages users to establish a good relationship with others. We designed the device so that it allows users to virtually hug the person in the remote site through the medium. In this paper, we report that when a participant talks to his communication partner during their first encounter while hugging the communication medium, he mistakenly feels as if they are establishing a good relationship and that he is being loved rather than just being liked. From this result, we discuss Active Co-Presence, a new method to enhance co-presence of people in remote through active behavior.},
  Acknowledgement          = {This research was partially supported by JST, CREST.},
  Doi                      = {10.4172/2090-9888.10000104},
  File                     = {Kuwamura2014a.pdf:pdf/Kuwamura2014a.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Keywords                 = {hug; co-presence; telecommunication},
  Language                 = {en},
  Reviewed                 = {y},
  Url                      = {http://www.omicsonline.com/open-access/hugvie_communication_device_for_encouraging_good_relationship_through_the_act_of_hugging.pdf?aid=24445}
}
Ryuji Yamazaki, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Marco Nørskov, Nobu Ishiguro, Giuseppe Balistreri, "Acceptability of a Teleoperated Android by Senior Citizens in Danish Society: A Case Study on the Application of an Embodied Communication Medium to Home Care", International Journal of Social Robotics, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 429-442, 2014.
Abstract: We explore the potential of teleoperated androids,which are embodied telecommunication media with humanlike appearances. By conducting field experiments, we investigated how Telenoid, a teleoperated android designed as a minimalistic human, affect people in the real world when it is employed to express telepresence and a sense of ‘being there’. Our exploratory study focused on the social aspects of the android robot, which might facilitate communication between the elderly and Telenoid’s operator. This new way of creating social relationships can be used to solve a problem in society, the social isolation of senior citizens. It has been becoming a major issue even in Denmark that is known as one of countries with advanced welfare systems. After asking elderly people to use Te-lenoid at their homes, we found that the elderly with or without dementia showed positive attitudes toward Telenoid and imaginatively developed various dialogue strategies. Their positivity and strong attachment to its minimalistic human design were cross-culturally shared in Denmark and Japan. Contrary to the negative reactions by non-users in media reports, our result suggests that teleoperated androids can be accepted by the elderly as a kind of universal design medium for social inclusion.
BibTeX:
@Article{Yamazaki2013a,
  Title                    = {Acceptability of a Teleoperated Android by Senior Citizens in Danish Society: A Case Study on the Application of an Embodied Communication Medium to Home Care},
  Author                   = {Ryuji Yamazaki and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro and Marco N\orskov and Nobu Ishiguro and Giuseppe Balistreri},
  Journal                  = {International Journal of Social Robotics},
  Year                     = {2014},
  Number                   = {3},
  Pages                    = {429-442},
  Volume                   = {6},

  Abstract                 = {We explore the potential of teleoperated androids,which are embodied telecommunication media with humanlike appearances. By conducting field experiments, we investigated how Telenoid, a teleoperated android designed as a minimalistic human, affect people in the real world when it is employed to express telepresence and a sense of ‘being there’. Our exploratory study focused on the social aspects of the android robot, which might facilitate communication between the elderly and Telenoid’s operator. This new way of creating social relationships can be used to solve a problem in society, the social isolation of senior citizens. It has been becoming a major issue even in Denmark that is known as one of countries with advanced welfare systems. After asking elderly people to use Te-lenoid at their homes, we found that the elderly with or without dementia showed positive attitudes toward Telenoid and imaginatively developed various dialogue strategies. Their positivity and strong attachment to its minimalistic human design were cross-culturally shared in Denmark and Japan. Contrary to the negative reactions by non-users in media reports, our result suggests that teleoperated androids can be accepted by the elderly as a kind of universal design medium for social inclusion.},
  Acknowledgement          = {This research was partially supported by {JST} {CREST}, and {MEXT KAKENHI} 24300200. The authors thank all the participants and our colleagues for their cooperation in this work, especially Martin Fischer at Svendborg Municipality, Jari Due Jessen at Technical University of Denmark, Helle Skovbjerg Karoff at Technical University of Denmark, Martin Exner at Danish University of Education, and Ilona Straub at University Duisburg-Essen.},
  Doi                      = {10.1007/s12369-014-0247-x},
  File                     = {Yamazaki2013a.pdf:pdf/Yamazaki2013a.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST; 基盤B},
  Keywords                 = {teleoperated android; minimal design; embodied communication; social isolation; elderly care; social acceptance},
  Language                 = {en},
  Reviewed                 = {Y}
}
Hidenobu Sumioka, Shuichi Nishio, Takashi Minato, Ryuji Yamazaki, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Minimal human design approach for sonzai-kan media: investigation of a feeling of human presence", Cognitive Computation, vol. 6, Issue 4, pp. 760-774, 2014.
Abstract: Even though human-like robotic media give the feeling of being with others and positively affect our physical and mental health, scant research has addressed how much information about a person should be reproduced to enhance the feeling of a human presence. We call this feeling sonzai-kan, which is a Japanese phrase that means the feeling of a presence. We propose a minimal design approach for exploring the requirements to enhance this feeling and hypothesize that it is enhanced if information is presented from at least two different modalities. In this approach, the exploration is conducted by designing sonzai-kan media through exploratory research with the media, their evaluations, and the development of their systems. In this paper, we give an overview of our current work with Telenoid, a teleoperated android designed with our approach, to illustrate how we explore the requirements and how such media impact our quality of life. We discuss the potential advantages of our approach for forging positive social relationships and designing an autonomous agent with minimal cognitive architecture.
BibTeX:
@Article{Sumioka2013e,
  Title                    = {Minimal human design approach for sonzai-kan media: investigation of a feeling of human presence},
  Author                   = {Hidenobu Sumioka and Shuichi Nishio and Takashi Minato and Ryuji Yamazaki and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Journal                  = {Cognitive Computation},
  Year                     = {2014},
  Pages                    = {760-774},
  Volume                   = {6, Issue 4},

  Abstract                 = {Even though human-like robotic media give the feeling of being with others and positively affect our physical and mental health, scant research has addressed how much information about a person should be reproduced to enhance the feeling of a human presence. We call this feeling sonzai-kan, which is a Japanese phrase that means the feeling of a presence. We propose a minimal design approach for exploring the requirements to enhance this feeling and hypothesize that it is enhanced if information is presented from at least two different modalities. In this approach, the exploration is conducted by designing sonzai-kan media through exploratory research with the media, their evaluations, and the development of their systems. In this paper, we give an overview of our current work with Telenoid, a teleoperated android designed with our approach, to illustrate how we explore the requirements and how such media impact our quality of life. We discuss the potential advantages of our approach for forging positive social relationships and designing an autonomous agent with minimal cognitive architecture.},
  Acknowledgement          = {This work has been supported by JST CREST (Core Research of Evolutional Science and Technology) research promotion program “ Creation of Human-Harmonized Information Technology for Convivial Society ” Research Area.},
  Doi                      = {10.1007/s12559-014-9270-3},
  File                     = {Sumioka2014.pdf:pdf/Sumioka2014.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Keywords                 = {Human–robot Interaction; Minimal design; Elderly care; Android science},
  Language                 = {en},
  Reviewed                 = {Y},
  Url                      = {http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12559-014-9270-3}
}
Kurima Sakai, Hidenobu Sumioka, Takashi Minato, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Motion Design of Interactive Small Humanoid Robot with Visual Illusion", International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control, vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 4725-4736, December, 2013.
Abstract: This paper presents a novel method to express motions of a small human-like robotic avatar that can be a portable communication medium: a user can talk with another person while feeling the other’s presence at anytime, anywhere. The human-like robotic avatar is expected to express human-like movements; however, there are technical and cost problems in implementing actuators in the small body. The method is to induce illusory motion of the robot’s extremities with blinking lights. This idea needs only Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) and avoids the above problems. This paper presents the design of an LED blinking pattern to induce an illusory nodding motion of Elfoid, which is a hand-held tele-operated humanoid robot. A psychological experiment shows that the illusory nodding motion gives a better impression to people than a symbolic blinking pattern. This result suggests that even the illusory motion of a robotic avatar can improve tele-communications.
BibTeX:
@Article{Sakai2013,
  Title                    = {Motion Design of Interactive Small Humanoid Robot with Visual Illusion},
  Author                   = {Kurima Sakai and Hidenobu Sumioka and Takashi Minato and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Journal                  = {International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control},
  Year                     = {2013},

  Month                    = Dec,
  Number                   = {12},
  Pages                    = {4725-4736},
  Volume                   = {9},

  Abstract                 = {This paper presents a novel method to express motions of a small human-like robotic avatar that can be a portable communication medium: a user can talk with another person while feeling the other’s presence at anytime, anywhere. The human-like robotic avatar is expected to express human-like movements; however, there are technical and cost problems in implementing actuators in the small body. The method is to induce illusory motion of the robot’s extremities with blinking lights. This idea needs only Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) and avoids the above problems. This paper presents the design of an LED blinking pattern to induce an illusory nodding motion of Elfoid, which is a hand-held tele-operated humanoid robot. A psychological experiment shows that the illusory nodding motion gives a better impression to people than a symbolic blinking pattern. This result suggests that even the illusory motion of a robotic avatar can improve tele-communications.},
  Acknowledgement          = {This work was partially supported by JST (Japan Science and Technology Agency) CREST (Core Research of Evolutional Science & Technology) research promotion program.},
  File                     = {Sakai2013.pdf:pdf/Sakai2013.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Keywords                 = {Tele-communication; Nonverbal communication; Portable robot avatar; Visual illusion of motion},
  Language                 = {en},
  Reviewed                 = {Y},
  Url                      = {http://www.ijicic.org/apchi12-275.pdf}
}
Martin Cooney, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Designing Robots for Well-being: Theoretical Background and Visual Scenes of Affectionate Play with a Small Humanoid Robot", Lovotics, November, 2013.
Abstract: Social well-being, referring to a subjectively perceived long-term state of happiness, life satisfaction, health, and other prosperity afforded by social interactions, is increasingly being employed to rate the success of human social systems. Although short-term changes in well-being can be difficult to measure directly, two important determinants can be assessed: perceived enjoyment and affection from relationships. The current article chronicles our work over several years toward achieving enjoyable and affectionate interactions with robots, with the aim of contributing to perception of social well-being in interacting persons. Emphasis has been placed on both describing in detail the theoretical basis underlying our work, and relating the story of each of several designs from idea to evaluation in a visual fashion. For the latter, we trace the course of designing four different robotic artifacts intended to further our understanding of how to provide enjoyment, elicit affection, and realize one specific scenario for affectionate play. As a result, by describing (a) how perceived enjoyment and affection contribute to social well-being, and (b) how a small humanoid robot can proactively engage in enjoyable and affectionate play—recognizing people’s behavior and leveraging this knowledge—the current article informs the design of companion robots intended to facilitate a perception of social well-being in interacting persons during affectionate play.
BibTeX:
@Article{Cooney2013d,
  Title                    = {Designing Robots for Well-being: Theoretical Background and Visual Scenes of Affectionate Play with a Small Humanoid Robot},
  Author                   = {Martin Cooney and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Journal                  = {Lovotics},
  Year                     = {2013},

  Month                    = Nov,

  Abstract                 = {Social well-being, referring to a subjectively perceived long-term state of happiness, life satisfaction, health, and other prosperity afforded by social interactions, is increasingly being employed to rate the success of human social systems. Although short-term changes in well-being can be difficult to measure directly, two important determinants can be assessed: perceived enjoyment and affection from relationships. The current article chronicles our work over several years toward achieving enjoyable and affectionate interactions with robots, with the aim of contributing to perception of social well-being in interacting persons. Emphasis has been placed on both describing in detail the theoretical basis underlying our work, and relating the story of each of several designs from idea to evaluation in a visual fashion. For the latter, we trace the course of designing four different robotic artifacts intended to further our understanding of how to provide enjoyment, elicit affection, and realize one specific scenario for affectionate play. As a result, by describing (a) how perceived enjoyment and affection contribute to social well-being, and (b) how a small humanoid robot can proactively engage in enjoyable and affectionate play—recognizing people’s behavior and leveraging this knowledge—the current article informs the design of companion robots intended to facilitate a perception of social well-being in interacting persons during affectionate play.},
  Acknowledgement          = {This research was supported by JST, CREST. We’d like to thank everyone who supported this project.},
  Doi                      = {10.4172/2090-9888.1000101},
  File                     = {Cooney2013d.pdf:pdf/Cooney2013d.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Keywords                 = {Human-robot interaction; well-being; enjoyment; affection; recognizing typical behavior; small humanoid robot},
  Language                 = {en},
  Reviewed                 = {Y},
  Url                      = {http://www.omicsonline.com/open-access/designing_robots_for_well_being_theoretical_background_and_visual.pdf?aid=24444}
}
Hidenobu Sumioka, Aya Nakae, Ryota Kanai, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Huggable communication medium decreases cortisol levels", Scientific Reports, vol. 3, no. 3034, October, 2013.
Abstract: Interpersonal touch is a fundamental component of social interactions because it can mitigate physical and psychological distress. To reproduce the psychological and physiological effects associated with interpersonal touch, interest is growing in introducing tactile sensations to communication devices. However, it remains unknown whether physical contact with such devices can produce objectively measurable endocrine effects like real interpersonal touching can. We directly tested this possibility by examining changes in stress hormone cortisol before and after a conversation with a huggable communication device. Participants had 15-minute conversations with a remote partner that was carried out either with a huggable human-shaped device or with a mobile phone. Our experiment revealed significant reduction in the cortisol levels for those who had conversations with the huggable device. Our approach to evaluate communication media with biological markers suggests new design directions for interpersonal communication media to improve social support systems in modern highly networked societies.
BibTeX:
@Article{Sumioka2013d,
  Title                    = {Huggable communication medium decreases cortisol levels},
  Author                   = {Hidenobu Sumioka and Aya Nakae and Ryota Kanai and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Journal                  = {Scientific Reports},
  Year                     = {2013},

  Month                    = Oct,
  Number                   = {3034},
  Volume                   = {3},

  Abstract                 = {Interpersonal touch is a fundamental component of social interactions because it can mitigate physical and psychological distress. To reproduce the psychological and physiological effects associated with interpersonal touch, interest is growing in introducing tactile sensations to communication devices. However, it remains unknown whether physical contact with such devices can produce objectively measurable endocrine effects like real interpersonal touching can. We directly tested this possibility by examining changes in stress hormone cortisol before and after a conversation with a huggable communication device. Participants had 15-minute conversations with a remote partner that was carried out either with a huggable human-shaped device or with a mobile phone. Our experiment revealed significant reduction in the cortisol levels for those who had conversations with the huggable device. Our approach to evaluate communication media with biological markers suggests new design directions for interpersonal communication media to improve social support systems in modern highly networked societies.},
  Acknowledgement          = {This work has been supported by JST CREST (Core Research of Evolutional Science and Technology) research promotion program “Creation of Human-Harmonized Information Technology for Convivial Society” Research Area and the Grant-in-Aid for the Global COE Program “Center of Human-friendly Robotics Based on Cognitive Neuroscience”.},
  Doi                      = {10.1038/srep03034},
  File                     = {Sumioka2013d.pdf:pdf/Sumioka2013d.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Language                 = {en},
  Reviewed                 = {Y},
  Url                      = {http://www.nature.com/srep/2013/131023/srep03034/full/srep03034.html}
}
Martin Cooney, Takayuki Kanda, Aris Alissandrakis, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Designing Enjoyable Motion-Based Play Interactions with a Small Humanoid Robot", International Journal of Social Robotics, vol. 6, pp. 173-193, September, 2013.
Abstract: Robots designed to co-exist with humans in domestic and public environments should be capable of interacting with people in an enjoyable fashion in order to be socially accepted. In this research, we seek to set up a small humanoid robot with the capability to provide enjoyment to people who pick up the robot and play with it by hugging, shaking and moving the robot in various ways. Inertial sensors inside a robot can capture how the robot‘s body is moved when people perform such full-body gestures. Unclear is how a robot can recognize what people do during play, and how such knowledge can be used to provide enjoyment. People‘s behavior is complex, and naïve designs for a robot‘s behavior based only on intuitive knowledge from previous designs may lead to failed interactions. To solve these problems, we model people‘s behavior using typical full-body gestures observed in free interaction trials, and devise an interaction design based on avoiding typical failures observed in play sessions with a naïve version of our robot. The interaction design is completed by investigating how a robot can provide reward and itself suggest ways to play during an interaction. We then verify experimentally that our design can be used to provide enjoyment during a playful interaction. By describing the process of how a small humanoid robot can be designed to provide enjoyment, we seek to move one step closer to realizing companion robots which can be successfully integrated into human society.
BibTeX:
@Article{Cooney2013,
  Title                    = {Designing Enjoyable Motion-Based Play Interactions with a Small Humanoid Robot},
  Author                   = {Martin Cooney and Takayuki Kanda and Aris Alissandrakis and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Journal                  = {International Journal of Social Robotics},
  Year                     = {2013},

  Month                    = Sep,
  Pages                    = {173-193},
  Volume                   = {6},

  Abstract                 = {Robots designed to co-exist with humans in domestic and public environments should be capable of interacting with people in an enjoyable fashion in order to be socially accepted. In this research, we seek to set up a small humanoid robot with the capability to provide enjoyment to people who pick up the robot and play with it by hugging, shaking and moving the robot in various ways. Inertial sensors inside a robot can capture how the robot‘s body is moved when people perform such full-body gestures. Unclear is how a robot can recognize what people do during play, and how such knowledge can be used to provide enjoyment. People‘s behavior is complex, and na\"{i}ve designs for a robot‘s behavior based only on intuitive knowledge from previous designs may lead to failed interactions. To solve these problems, we model people‘s behavior using typical full-body gestures observed in free interaction trials, and devise an interaction design based on avoiding typical failures observed in play sessions with a na\"{i}ve version of our robot. The interaction design is completed by investigating how a robot can provide reward and itself suggest ways to play during an interaction. We then verify experimentally that our design can be used to provide enjoyment during a playful interaction. By describing the process of how a small humanoid robot can be designed to provide enjoyment, we seek to move one step closer to realizing companion robots which can be successfully integrated into human society.},
  Acknowledgement          = {This research was supported by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications of Japan and JST, CREST.},
  Doi                      = {10.1007/s12369-013-0212-0},
  File                     = {Cooney2013.pdf:pdf/Cooney2013.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Keywords                 = {Interaction design for enjoyment; Playful human-robot interaction; Full-body gesture recognition; Inertial sensing; Small humanoid robot},
  Language                 = {en},
  Reviewed                 = {Y},
  Url                      = {http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12369-013-0212-0}
}
Chaoran Liu, Carlos T. Ishi, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Norihiro Hagita, "Generation of Nodding, Head Tilting and Gazing for Human-Robot Speech Interaction", International Journal of Humanoid Robotics, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1350009(1-19), April, 2013.
Abstract: Head motion occurs naturally and in synchrony with speech during human dialogue communication, and may carry paralinguistic information, such as intentions, attitudes and emotions. Therefore, natural-looking head motion by a robot is important for smooth human-robot interaction. Based on rules inferred from analyses of the relationship between head motion and dialogue acts, this paperproposes a model for generating headtilting and nodding, and evaluates the model using three types of humanoid robot (a very human-like android, "Geminoid F", a typical humanoid robot with less facial degrees of freedom, "Robovie R2", and a robot with a 3-axis rotatable neck and movable lips, "Telenoid R2"). Analysis of subjective scores shows that the proposed model including head tilting and nodding can generate head motion with increased naturalness compared to nodding only or directly mapping peoples original motions without gaze information. We also nd that an upward motion of a robots face can be used by robots which do not have a mouth in order to provide the appearance that utterance is taking place. Finally, we conduct an experiment in which participants act as visitors to an information desk attended by robots. As a consequence, we verify that our generation model performs equally to directly mapping peoples original motions with gaze information in terms ofperceived naturalness.
BibTeX:
@Article{Liu2012a,
  Title                    = {Generation of Nodding, Head Tilting and Gazing for Human-Robot Speech Interaction},
  Author                   = {Chaoran Liu and Carlos T. Ishi and Hiroshi Ishiguro and Norihiro Hagita},
  Journal                  = {International Journal of Humanoid Robotics},
  Year                     = {2013},

  Month                    = Apr,
  Number                   = {1},
  Pages                    = {1350009(1-19)},
  Volume                   = {10},

  Abstract                 = {Head motion occurs naturally and in synchrony with speech during human dialogue communication, and may carry paralinguistic information, such as intentions, attitudes and emotions. Therefore, natural-looking head motion by a robot is important for smooth human-robot interaction. Based on rules inferred from analyses of the relationship between head motion and dialogue acts, this paperproposes a model for generating headtilting and nodding, and evaluates the model using three types of humanoid robot (a very human-like android, "Geminoid F", a typical humanoid robot with less facial degrees of freedom, "Robovie R2", and a robot with a 3-axis rotatable neck and movable lips, "Telenoid R2"). Analysis of subjective scores shows that the proposed model including head tilting and nodding can generate head motion with increased naturalness compared to nodding only or directly mapping peoples original motions without gaze information. We also nd that an upward motion of a robots face can be used by robots which do not have a mouth in order to provide the appearance that utterance is taking place. Finally, we conduct an experiment in which participants act as visitors to an information desk attended by robots. As a consequence, we verify that our generation model performs equally to directly mapping peoples original motions with gaze information in terms ofperceived naturalness.},
  Acknowledgement          = {This work was supported by {JST CREST}.},
  Day                      = {2},
  Doi                      = {10.1142/S0219843613500096},
  File                     = {Liu2012a.pdf:pdf/Liu2012a.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Keywords                 = {Head motion; dialogue acts; gazing; motion generation},
  Language                 = {en},
  Reviewed                 = {Y},
  Url                      = {http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0219843613500096}
}
Ryuji Yamazaki, Shuichi Nishio, Kohei Ogawa, Kohei Matsumura, Takashi Minato, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Tsutomu Fujinami, Masaru Nishikawa, "Promoting Socialization of Schoolchildren Using a Teleoperated Android: An Interaction Study", International Journal of Humanoid Robotics, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1350007(1-25), April, 2013.
Abstract: Our research focuses on the social aspects of teleoperated androids as new media for human relationships and explores how they can contribute and encourage people to associate with others. We introduced Telenoid, a teleoperated android with a minimalistic human design, to elementary school classrooms to see how children respond to it. We found that Telenoid encourages children to work cooperatively and facilitates communication with senior citizens with dementia. Children differentiated their roles spontaneously and cooperatively participated in group work. In another class, we applied Telenoid to remote communication between schoolchildren and assisted living residents. The children felt relaxed about continuing their conversations with the elderly and positively participated in them. The results suggest that limited functionality may facilitate cooperation among participants, and varied embodiments may promote the learning process of the association with others, even those who are unfamiliar. We propose a teleoperated android as an educational tool to promote socialization.
BibTeX:
@Article{Yamazaki2012e,
  Title                    = {Promoting Socialization of Schoolchildren Using a Teleoperated Android: An Interaction Study},
  Author                   = {Ryuji Yamazaki and Shuichi Nishio and Kohei Ogawa and Kohei Matsumura and Takashi Minato and Hiroshi Ishiguro and Tsutomu Fujinami and Masaru Nishikawa},
  Journal                  = {International Journal of Humanoid Robotics},
  Year                     = {2013},

  Month                    = Apr,
  Number                   = {1},
  Pages                    = {1350007(1-25)},
  Volume                   = {10},

  Abstract                 = {Our research focuses on the social aspects of teleoperated androids as new media for human relationships and explores how they can contribute and encourage people to associate with others. We introduced Telenoid, a teleoperated android with a minimalistic human design, to elementary school classrooms to see how children respond to it. We found that Telenoid encourages children to work cooperatively and facilitates communication with senior citizens with dementia. Children differentiated their roles spontaneously and cooperatively participated in group work. In another class, we applied Telenoid to remote communication between schoolchildren and assisted living residents. The children felt relaxed about continuing their conversations with the elderly and positively participated in them. The results suggest that limited functionality may facilitate cooperation among participants, and varied embodiments may promote the learning process of the association with others, even those who are unfamiliar. We propose a teleoperated android as an educational tool to promote socialization.},
  Acknowledgement          = {This research was partially supported by {JST CREST}, {SPP}, and {MEXT KAKENHI} 24300200.},
  Day                      = {2},
  Doi                      = {10.1142/S0219843613500072},
  File                     = {Yamazaki2012e.pdf:pdf/Yamazaki2012e.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST; 基盤B},
  Keywords                 = {Telecommunication; android robot; minimal design; cooperation; role differentiation; inter-generational relationship; embodied communication; teleoperation; socialization},
  Language                 = {en},
  Reviewed                 = {Y},
  Url                      = {http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0219843613500072}
}
Kohei Ogawa, Shuichi Nishio, Kensuke Koda, Giuseppe Balistreri, Tetsuya Watanabe, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Exploring the Natural Reaction of Young and Aged Person with Telenoid in a Real World", Journal of Advanced Computational Intelligence and Intelligent Informatics, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 592-597, July, 2011.
Abstract: This paper describes two field tests conducted with shopping mall visitors and with aged persons defined as in their 70s to 90s. For both of the field tests, we used an android we developed called Telenoid R1 or just Telenoid. In the following field tests we interviewed participants about their impressions of the Telenoid. The results of the shopping mall showed that almost half of the interviewees felt negative toward Telenoid until they hugged it, after which opinions became positive. Results of the other test showed that the majority of aged persons reported a positive opinion and, interestingly, all aged persons who interacted with Telenoid gave it a hug without any suggestion to do so. This suggests that older persons find Telenoid to be acceptable medium for the elderly. Younger persons may also find Telenoid acceptable, seeing that visitors developed positive feelings toward the robot after giving it a hug. These results should prove valuable in our future work with androids.
BibTeX:
@Article{Ogawa2011,
  Title                    = {Exploring the Natural Reaction of Young and Aged Person with Telenoid in a Real World},
  Author                   = {Kohei Ogawa and Shuichi Nishio and Kensuke Koda and Giuseppe Balistreri and Tetsuya Watanabe and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Journal                  = {Journal of Advanced Computational Intelligence and Intelligent Informatics},
  Year                     = {2011},

  Month                    = Jul,
  Number                   = {5},
  Pages                    = {592--597},
  Volume                   = {15},

  Abstract                 = {This paper describes two field tests conducted with shopping mall visitors and with aged persons defined as in their 70s to 90s. For both of the field tests, we used an android we developed called Telenoid R1 or just Telenoid. In the following field tests we interviewed participants about their impressions of the Telenoid. The results of the shopping mall showed that almost half of the interviewees felt negative toward Telenoid until they hugged it, after which opinions became positive. Results of the other test showed that the majority of aged persons reported a positive opinion and, interestingly, all aged persons who interacted with Telenoid gave it a hug without any suggestion to do so. This suggests that older persons find Telenoid to be acceptable medium for the elderly. Younger persons may also find Telenoid acceptable, seeing that visitors developed positive feelings toward the robot after giving it a hug. These results should prove valuable in our future work with androids.},
  Acknowledgement          = {CREST;基盤S},
  File                     = {Ogawa2011.pdf:Ogawa2011.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST;基盤S},
  Keywords                 = {Telenoid; Geminoid; human robot interaction},
  Reviewed                 = {Y},
  Url                      = {http://www.fujipress.jp/finder/xslt.php?mode=present&inputfile=JACII001500050012.xml}
}
Reviewed Conference Papers
Kurima Sakai, Carlos T. Ishi, Takashi Minato, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Online speech-driven head motion generating system and evaluation on a tele-operated robot", In IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, Kobe, Japan, pp. 529-534, August, 2015.
Abstract: We developed a tele-operated robot system where the head motions of the robot are controlled by combining those of the operator with the ones which are automatically generated from the operator's voice. The head motion generation is based on dialogue act functions which are estimated from linguistic and prosodic information extracted from the speech signal. The proposed system was evaluated through an experiment where participants interact with a tele-operated robot. Subjective scores indicated the effectiveness of the proposed head motion generation system, even under limitations in the dialogue act estimation
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Sakai2015,
  author =    {Kurima Sakai and Carlos T. Ishi and Takashi Minato and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =     {Online speech-driven head motion generating system and evaluation on a tele-operated robot},
  booktitle = {IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication},
  year =      {2015},
  pages =     {529-534},
  address =   {Kobe, Japan},
  month =     AUG,
  abstract =  {We developed a tele-operated robot system where the head motions of the robot are controlled by combining those of the operator with the ones which are automatically generated from the operator's voice. The head motion generation is based on dialogue act functions which are estimated from linguistic and prosodic information extracted from the speech signal. The proposed system was evaluated through an experiment where participants interact with a tele-operated robot. Subjective scores indicated the effectiveness of the proposed head motion generation system, even under limitations in the dialogue act estimation},
  file =      {Sakai2015.pdf:pdf/Sakai2015.pdf:PDF},
}
Junya Nakanishi, Hidenobu Sumioka, Kurima Sakai, Daisuke Nakamichi, Masahiro Shiomi, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Huggable Communication Medium Encourages Listening to Others", In 2nd International Conference on Human-Agent Interraction, Tsukuba, Japan, pp. pp 249-252, October, 2014.
Abstract: We propose that a huggable communication device helps children concentrate on listening to others by reducing their stress and feeling a storyteller’s presence close to them. Our observation of storytelling to preschool children suggests that Hugvie, which is one of such devices, facilitates children’s attention to the story. This indicates the usefulness of Hugvie to relieve the educational problem that children show selfish behavior during class. We discuss Hugvie’s effect on learning and memory and potential application to children with special support.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Nakanishi2014,
  Title                    = {Huggable Communication Medium Encourages Listening to Others},
  Author                   = {Junya Nakanishi and Hidenobu Sumioka and Kurima Sakai and Daisuke Nakamichi and Masahiro Shiomi and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Booktitle                = {2nd International Conference on Human-Agent Interraction},
  Year                     = {2014},

  Address                  = {Tsukuba, Japan},
  Month                    = OCT,
  Pages                    = {pp 249-252},

  Abstract                 = {We propose that a huggable communication device helps children concentrate on listening to others by reducing their stress and feeling a storyteller’s presence close to them. Our observation of storytelling to preschool children suggests that Hugvie, which is one of such devices, facilitates children’s attention to the story. This indicates the usefulness of Hugvie to relieve the educational problem that children show selfish behavior during class. We discuss Hugvie’s effect on learning and memory and potential application to children with special support.},
  File                     = {Nakanishi2014.pdf:pdf/Nakanishi2014.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Language                 = {en},
  Reviewed                 = {y},
  Url                      = {http://hai-conference.net/hai2014/}
}
Daisuke Nakamichi, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Training of telecommunication through teleoperated android “Telenoid” and its effect", In The 23rd IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, pp. 1083-1088, August, 2014.
Abstract: Telenoid, a teleoperated android is a medium through which its teleoperators can transmit both verbal and nonverbal information to interlocutors. Telenoid promotes conversation with its interlocutors, especially elderly people. But since teleoperators admit that they have difficulty feeling that they are actually teleoperating their robots, they can’t use them effectively to transmit nonverbal information; such nonverbal information is one of Telenoid’s biggest merits. In this paper, we propose a training program for teleoperators so that they can understand Telenoid’s teleoperation and how to transmit nonverbal information through it. We investigated its effect on teleoperation and communication and identified three results. First, our training improved Telenoid’s head motions for clearer transmission of nonverbal information. Second, our training found different effects between genders. Females communicated with their interlocutors more smoothly than males. Males communicated with their interlocutors more smoothly by simply more talking practice. Third, correlations exist among freely controlling the robot, regarding the robot as themselves, and tele-presence in the interlocutors room as well as correlations between the interactions and themselves. But there are not correlations between feelings about Telenoids teleoperation and the head movements.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Nakamichi2014,
  Title                    = {Training of telecommunication through teleoperated android “Telenoid” and its effect},
  Author                   = {Daisuke Nakamichi and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Booktitle                = {The 23rd IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication},
  Year                     = {2014},

  Address                  = {Edinburgh, Scotland, UK},
  Month                    = Aug,
  Pages                    = {1083-1088},

  Abstract                 = {Telenoid, a teleoperated android is a medium through which its teleoperators can transmit both verbal and nonverbal information to interlocutors. Telenoid promotes conversation with its interlocutors, especially elderly people. But since teleoperators admit that they have difficulty feeling that they are actually teleoperating their robots, they can’t use them effectively to transmit nonverbal information; such nonverbal information is one of Telenoid’s biggest merits. In this paper, we propose a training program for teleoperators so that they can understand Telenoid’s teleoperation and how to transmit nonverbal information through it. We investigated its effect on teleoperation and communication and identified three results. First, our training improved Telenoid’s head motions for clearer transmission of nonverbal information. Second, our training found different effects between genders. Females communicated with their interlocutors more smoothly than males. Males communicated with their interlocutors more smoothly by simply more talking practice. Third, correlations exist among freely controlling the robot, regarding the robot as themselves, and tele-presence in the interlocutors room as well as correlations between the interactions and themselves. But there are not correlations between feelings about Telenoids teleoperation and the head movements.},
  Acknowledgement          = {This work was supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research, KAKENHI (24300200), JST, CREST, and SPIR},
  Day                      = {25-29},
  File                     = {Nakamichi2014.pdf:pdf/Nakamichi2014.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST; 基盤B; SPIR},
  Language                 = {en},
  Reviewed                 = {Y},
  Url                      = {http://rehabilitationrobotics.net/ro-man14/}
}
Kaiko Kuwamura, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Designing Robots for Positive Communication with Senior Citizens", In The 13th Intelligent Autonomous Systems conference, Padova, Italy, July, 2014.
Abstract: Several previous researches indicated that the elderly, especially those with cognitive disorders, have positive impressions of Telenoid, a teleoperated android covered with soft vinyl. Senior citizens with cognitive disorders have low cognitive ability and duller senses due to their age. To communicate, we believe that they have to imagine the information that is missing because they failed to completely receive it in their mind. We hypothesize that Telenoid triggers and enhances such an ability to imagine and positively complete the information, and so they become attracted to Telenoid. Based on this hypothesis, we discuss the factors that trigger imagination and complete positive impressions toward a robot for elderly care.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Kuwamura2014c,
  Title                    = {Designing Robots for Positive Communication with Senior Citizens},
  Author                   = {Kaiko Kuwamura and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Booktitle                = {The 13th Intelligent Autonomous Systems conference},
  Year                     = {2014},

  Address                  = {Padova, Italy},
  Month                    = Jul,

  Abstract                 = {Several previous researches indicated that the elderly, especially those with cognitive disorders, have positive impressions of Telenoid, a teleoperated android covered with soft vinyl. Senior citizens with cognitive disorders have low cognitive ability and duller senses due to their age. To communicate, we believe that they have to imagine the information that is missing because they failed to completely receive it in their mind. We hypothesize that Telenoid triggers and enhances such an ability to imagine and positively complete the information, and so they become attracted to Telenoid. Based on this hypothesis, we discuss the factors that trigger imagination and complete positive impressions toward a robot for elderly care.},
  Acknowledgement          = {This research was supported by JST, CREST.},
  Day                      = {15-19},
  File                     = {Kuwamura2014c.pdf:pdf/Kuwamura2014c.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST; 基盤B},
  Language                 = {en},
  Reviewed                 = {Y},
  Url                      = {http://www.ias-13.org/}
}
Rosario Sorbello, Antonio Chella, Marcello Giardina, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "An Architecture for Telenoid Robot as Empathic Conversational Android Companion for Elderly People", In the 13th International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems, Padova, Italy, July, 2014.
Abstract: In Human-Humanoid Interaction (HHI), empathy is a crucial key in order to overcome the current limitations of social robots. In facts, a principal de ning characteristic of human social behaviour is empathy. The present paper presents a robotic architecture for an android robot as a basis for natural empathic human-android interaction. We start from the hypothesis that the robots, in order to become personal companions need to know how to empathic interact with human beings. To validate our research, we have used the proposed system with the minimalistic humanoid robot Telenoid. We have conducted human-robot interactions test with elderly people with no prior interaction experience with robot. During the experiment the elderly persons engaged a stimulated conversation with the humanoid robot. Our goal is to overcome the state of loneliness of elderly people using this minimalistic humanoid robot capa- ble to exhibit a dialogue similar to what usually happens in the real life between human beings.The experimental results have shown a humanoid robotic system capable to exhibit a natural and empathic interaction and conversation with a human user.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Sorbello2014,
  Title                    = {An Architecture for Telenoid Robot as Empathic Conversational Android Companion for Elderly People},
  Author                   = {Rosario Sorbello and Antonio Chella and Marcello Giardina and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Booktitle                = {the 13th International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems},
  Year                     = {2014},

  Address                  = {Padova, Italy},
  Month                    = Jul,

  Abstract                 = {In Human-Humanoid Interaction (HHI), empathy is a crucial key in order to overcome the current limitations of social robots. In facts, a principal dening characteristic of human social behaviour is empathy. The present paper presents a robotic architecture for an android robot as a basis for natural empathic human-android interaction. We start from the hypothesis that the robots, in order to become personal companions need to know how to empathic interact with human beings. To validate our research, we have used the proposed system with the minimalistic humanoid robot Telenoid. We have conducted human-robot interactions test with elderly people with no prior interaction experience with robot. During the experiment the elderly persons engaged a stimulated conversation with the humanoid robot. Our goal is to overcome the state of loneliness of elderly people using this minimalistic humanoid robot capa- ble to exhibit a dialogue similar to what usually happens in the real life between human beings.The experimental results have shown a humanoid robotic system capable to exhibit a natural and empathic interaction and conversation with a human user.},
  Day                      = {15-19},
  File                     = {Sorbello2014.pdf:pdf/Sorbello2014.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Keywords                 = {Humanoid Robot; Humanoid Robot Interaction; Life Support Empathic Robot; Telenoid},
  Language                 = {en},
  Reviewed                 = {Y}
}
Ryuji Yamazaki, Kaiko Kuwamura, Shuichi Nishio, Takashi Minato, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Activating Embodied Communication: A Case Study of People with Dementia Using a Teleoperated Android Robot", In The 9th World Conference of Gerontechnology, vol. 13, no. 2, Taipei, Taiwan, pp. 311, June, 2014.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Yamazaki2014a,
  Title                    = {Activating Embodied Communication: A Case Study of People with Dementia Using a Teleoperated Android Robot},
  Author                   = {Ryuji Yamazaki and Kaiko Kuwamura and Shuichi Nishio and Takashi Minato and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Booktitle                = {The 9th World Conference of Gerontechnology},
  Year                     = {2014},

  Address                  = {Taipei, Taiwan},
  Month                    = Jun,
  Number                   = {2},
  Pages                    = {311},
  Volume                   = {13},

  Day                      = {18-21},
  Doi                      = {10.4017/gt.2014.13.02.166.00},
  File                     = {Yamazaki2014a.pdf:pdf/Yamazaki2014a.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST; SPIR; 基盤B},
  Keywords                 = {Elderly care robot; social isolation; embodied communication; community design},
  Language                 = {en},
  Reviewed                 = {Y},
  Url                      = {http://gerontechnology.info/index.php/journal/article/view/gt.2014.13.02.166.00/0}
}
Kaiko Kuwamura, Ryuji Yamazaki, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Elderly Care Using Teleoperated Android Telenoid", In The 9th World Conference of Gerontechnology, vol. 13, no. 2, Taipei, Taiwan, pp. 226, June, 2014.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Kuwamura2014,
  Title                    = {Elderly Care Using Teleoperated Android Telenoid},
  Author                   = {Kaiko Kuwamura and Ryuji Yamazaki and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Booktitle                = {The 9th World Conference of Gerontechnology},
  Year                     = {2014},

  Address                  = {Taipei, Taiwan},
  Month                    = Jun,
  Number                   = {2},
  Pages                    = {226},
  Volume                   = {13},

  Day                      = {18-21},
  Doi                      = {10.4017/gt.2014.13.02.091.00},
  File                     = {Kuwamura2014.pdf:pdf/Kuwamura2014.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Keywords                 = {Elderly care robot; teleoperated android; cognitive disorder},
  Language                 = {en},
  Reviewed                 = {Y},
  Url                      = {http://gerontechnology.info/index.php/journal/article/view/gt.2014.13.02.091.00}
}
Carlos T. Ishi, Hiroaki Hatano, Miyako Kiso, "Acoustic-prosodic and paralinguistic analyses of “uun” and “unun”", In Speech Prosody 7, Dublin, Ireland, pp. 100-104, May, 2014.
Abstract: The speaking style of an interjection contains discriminative features on its expressed intention, attitude or emotion. In the present work, we analyzed acoustic-prosodic features and the paralinguistic functions of two variations of the interjection “un”, a lengthened pattern “uun” and a repeated pattern “unun”, which are often found in Japanese conversational speech. Analysis results indicate that there are differences in the paralinguistic function expressed by “uun” and “unun”, as well as different trends on F0 contour types according to the conveyed paralinguistic information.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Ishi2014,
  Title                    = {Acoustic-prosodic and paralinguistic analyses of “uun” and “unun”},
  Author                   = {Carlos T. Ishi and Hiroaki Hatano and Miyako Kiso},
  Booktitle                = {Speech Prosody 7},
  Year                     = {2014},

  Address                  = {Dublin, Ireland},
  Month                    = May,
  Pages                    = {100-104},

  Abstract                 = {The speaking style of an interjection contains discriminative features on its expressed intention, attitude or emotion. In the present work, we analyzed acoustic-prosodic features and the paralinguistic functions of two variations of the interjection “un”, a lengthened pattern “uun” and a repeated pattern “unun”, which are often found in Japanese conversational speech. Analysis results indicate that there are differences in the paralinguistic function expressed by “uun” and “unun”, as well as different trends on F0 contour types according to the conveyed paralinguistic information.},
  Acknowledgement          = {This work was partly supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports and (MEXT Kakenhi) and Japan Science and Technology Corporation (JST).},
  Day                      = {20-23},
  File                     = {Ishi2014.pdf:pdf/Ishi2014.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {基盤S-2013; CREST},
  Keywords                 = {interjections; acoustic-prosodic features; paralinguistic information; spontaneous conversational speech},
  Language                 = {en},
  Reviewed                 = {Y}
}
Kaiko Kuwamura, Shuichi Nishio, "Modality reduction for enhancing human likeliness", In Selected papers of the 50th annual convention of the Artificial Intelligence and the Simulation of Behaviour, London, UK, pp. 83-89, April, 2014.
Abstract: We proposed a method to enhance one’s affection by reducing number of transferred modalities. When we dream of an artificial partner for “love”, its appearance is the first thing of con- cern; a very humanlike, beautiful robot. However, we did not design a medium with a beautiful appearance but a medium which ignores the appearance and let users imagine and complete the appearance. By reducing the number of transferred modalities, we can enhance one’s affection toward a robot. Moreover, not just by transmitting, but by inducing active, unconscious behavior of users, we can increase this effect. In this paper, we will introduce supporting results from our experiments and discuss further applicability of our findings.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Kuwamura2014b,
  Title                    = {Modality reduction for enhancing human likeliness},
  Author                   = {Kaiko Kuwamura and Shuichi Nishio},
  Booktitle                = {Selected papers of the 50th annual convention of the Artificial Intelligence and the Simulation of Behaviour},
  Year                     = {2014},

  Address                  = {London, UK},
  Month                    = Apr,
  Pages                    = {83-89},

  Abstract                 = {We proposed a method to enhance one’s affection by reducing number of transferred modalities. When we dream of an artificial partner for “love”, its appearance is the first thing of con- cern; a very humanlike, beautiful robot. However, we did not design a medium with a beautiful appearance but a medium which ignores the appearance and let users imagine and complete the appearance. By reducing the number of transferred modalities, we can enhance one’s affection toward a robot. Moreover, not just by transmitting, but by inducing active, unconscious behavior of users, we can increase this effect. In this paper, we will introduce supporting results from our experiments and discuss further applicability of our findings.},
  Acknowledgement          = {This research was supported by JST, CREST.},
  Day                      = {1-4},
  File                     = {Kuwamura2014b.pdf:pdf/Kuwamura2014b.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Language                 = {en},
  Reviewed                 = {Y},
  Url                      = {http://doc.gold.ac.uk/aisb50/AISB50-S16/AISB50-S16-Kuwamura-paper.pdf}
}
Kaiko Kuwamura, Kurima Sakai, Takashi Minato, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Hugvie: A medium that fosters love", In IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, Gyeongju, Korea, pp. 70-75, August, 2013.
Abstract: We introduce a communication medium that en- courages users to fall in love with their counterparts. Hugvie, the huggable tele-presence medium, enables users to feel like hugging their counterparts while chatting. In this paper, we report that when a participant talks to his communication partner during their first encounter while hugging Hugvie, he mistakenly feels as if they are establishing a good relationship and that he is being loved rather than just being liked.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Kuwamura2013,
  Title                    = {Hugvie: A medium that fosters love},
  Author                   = {Kaiko Kuwamura and Kurima Sakai and Takashi Minato and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Booktitle                = {{IEEE} International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication},
  Year                     = {2013},

  Address                  = {Gyeongju, Korea},
  Month                    = Aug,
  Pages                    = {70-75},

  Abstract                 = {We introduce a communication medium that en- courages users to fall in love with their counterparts. Hugvie, the huggable tele-presence medium, enables users to feel like hugging their counterparts while chatting. In this paper, we report that when a participant talks to his communication partner during their first encounter while hugging Hugvie, he mistakenly feels as if they are establishing a good relationship and that he is being loved rather than just being liked.},
  Acknowledgement          = {This research was supported by JST, CREST.},
  Day                      = {26-29},
  Doi                      = {10.1109/ROMAN.2013.6628533},
  File                     = {Kuwamura2013.pdf:pdf/Kuwamura2013.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Language                 = {en},
  Reviewed                 = {Y}
}
Shuichi Nishio, Koichi Taura, Hidenobu Sumioka, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Effect of Social Interaction on Body Ownership Transfer to Teleoperated Android", In IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, Gyeonguju, Korea, pp. 565-570, August, 2013.
Abstract: Body Ownership Transfer (BOT) is an illusion that we feel external objects as parts of our own body that occurs when teleoperating android robots. In past studies, we have been investigating under what conditions this illusion occurs. However, past studies were only conducted with simple operation tasks such as by only moving the robot’s hand. Does this illusion occur under much complex tasks such as having a conversation? What kind of conversation setting is required to invoke this illusion? In this paper, we examined how factors in social interaction affects occurrence of BOT. Participants had conversation using the teleoperated robot under different situations and teleoperation settings. The results revealed that BOT does occur by the act of having a conversation, and that conversation partner’s presence and appropriate responses are necessary for enhancement of BOT.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Nishio2013,
  Title                    = {Effect of Social Interaction on Body Ownership Transfer to Teleoperated Android},
  Author                   = {Shuichi Nishio and Koichi Taura and Hidenobu Sumioka and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Booktitle                = {{IEEE} International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication},
  Year                     = {2013},

  Address                  = {Gyeonguju, Korea},
  Month                    = Aug,
  Pages                    = {565-570},

  Abstract                 = {Body Ownership Transfer (BOT) is an illusion that we feel external objects as parts of our own body that occurs when teleoperating android robots. In past studies, we have been investigating under what conditions this illusion occurs. However, past studies were only conducted with simple operation tasks such as by only moving the robot’s hand. Does this illusion occur under much complex tasks such as having a conversation? What kind of conversation setting is required to invoke this illusion? In this paper, we examined how factors in social interaction affects occurrence of BOT. Participants had conversation using the teleoperated robot under different situations and teleoperation settings. The results revealed that BOT does occur by the act of having a conversation, and that conversation partner’s presence and appropriate responses are necessary for enhancement of BOT.},
  Acknowledgement          = {This work was supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research, {KAKENHI} (20220002, 24650114) and by {JST}, {CREST}.},
  Day                      = {26-29},
  Doi                      = {10.1109/ROMAN.2013.6628539},
  File                     = {Nishio2013.pdf:pdf/Nishio2013.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {萌芽; 基盤S; CREST},
  Language                 = {en},
  Reviewed                 = {Y}
}
Junya Nakanishi, Kaiko Kuwamura, Takashi Minato, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Evoking Affection for a Communication Partner by a Robotic Communication Medium", In the First International Conference on Human-Agent Interaction, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan, pp. III-1-4, August, 2013.
Abstract: This paper reveals a new effect of robotic communication media that can function as avatars of communication partners. Users interaction with a medium may alter feelings their toward partners. The paper hypothesized that talking while hugging a robotic medium increases romantic feelings or attraction toward a partner in robot-mediated tele-communication. Our experiment used Hugvie, a human-shaped medium, for talking in a hugging state. We found that people subconsciously increased their romantic attraction toward opposite sex partners by hugging Hugvie. This resultant effect is novel because we revealed the effect of user hugging on the user's own feelings instead of being hugged by a partner.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Nakanishi2013,
  Title                    = {Evoking Affection for a Communication Partner by a Robotic Communication Medium},
  Author                   = {Junya Nakanishi and Kaiko Kuwamura and Takashi Minato and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Booktitle                = {the First International Conference on Human-Agent Interaction},
  Year                     = {2013},

  Address                  = {Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan},
  Month                    = Aug,
  Pages                    = {III-1-4},

  Abstract                 = {This paper reveals a new effect of robotic communication media that can function as avatars of communication partners. Users interaction with a medium may alter feelings their toward partners. The paper hypothesized that talking while hugging a robotic medium increases romantic feelings or attraction toward a partner in robot-mediated tele-communication. Our experiment used Hugvie, a human-shaped medium, for talking in a hugging state. We found that people subconsciously increased their romantic attraction toward opposite sex partners by hugging Hugvie. This resultant effect is novel because we revealed the effect of user hugging on the user's own feelings instead of being hugged by a partner.},
  Acknowledgement          = {This work was partially supported by {JST} (Japan Science and Technology Agency) {CREST} (Core Research of Evolutional Science & Technology) research promo-tion program.},
  Day                      = {7-9},
  File                     = {Nakanishi2013.pdf:pdf/Nakanishi2013.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Language                 = {en},
  Reviewed                 = {Y},
  Url                      = {http://hai-conference.net/ihai2013/proceedings/html/paper/paper-III-1-4.html}
}
Hidenobu Sumioka, Kensuke Koda, Shuichi Nishio, Takashi Minato, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Revisiting ancient design of human form for communication avatar: Design considerations from chronological development of Dogu", In IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, Gyeongju, Korea, pp. 726-731, August, 2013.
Abstract: Robot avatar systems give the feeling we share a space with people who are actually at a distant location. Since our cognitive system specializes in recognizing a human, avatars of the distant people can make us strongly feel that we share space with them, provided that their appearance has been designed to sufficiently resemble humans. In this paper, we investigate the minimal requirements of robot avatars for distant people to feel their presence, Toward this aim, we give an overview of the chronological development of Dogu, which are human figurines made in ancient Japan. This survey of the Dogu shows that the torso, not the face, was considered the primary element for representing a human. It also suggests that some body parts can be represented in a simple form. Following the development of Dogu, we also use a conversation task to examine what kind of body representation is necessary to feel a distant person’s presence. The experimental results show that the forms for the torso and head are required to enhance this feeling, while other body parts have less impact. We discuss the connection between our findings and an avatar’s facial expression and motion.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Sumioka2013b,
  Title                    = {Revisiting ancient design of human form for communication avatar: Design considerations from chronological development of Dogu},
  Author                   = {Hidenobu Sumioka and Kensuke Koda and Shuichi Nishio and Takashi Minato and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Booktitle                = {{IEEE} International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication},
  Year                     = {2013},

  Address                  = {Gyeongju, Korea},
  Month                    = Aug,
  Pages                    = {726-731},

  Abstract                 = {Robot avatar systems give the feeling we share a space with people who are actually at a distant location. Since our cognitive system specializes in recognizing a human, avatars of the distant people can make us strongly feel that we share space with them, provided that their appearance has been designed to sufficiently resemble humans. In this paper, we investigate the minimal requirements of robot avatars for distant people to feel their presence, Toward this aim, we give an overview of the chronological development of Dogu, which are human figurines made in ancient Japan. This survey of the Dogu shows that the torso, not the face, was considered the primary element for representing a human. It also suggests that some body parts can be represented in a simple form. Following the development of Dogu, we also use a conversation task to examine what kind of body representation is necessary to feel a distant person’s presence. The experimental results show that the forms for the torso and head are required to enhance this feeling, while other body parts have less impact. We discuss the connection between our findings and an avatar’s facial expression and motion.},
  Acknowledgement          = {This work has been supported by {JST} {CREST} (Core Research of Evolutional Science and Technology) research promotion program “Creation of Human-Harmonized Information Technology for Convivial Society” Research Area.},
  Day                      = {26-29},
  Doi                      = {10.1109/ROMAN.2013.6628399},
  File                     = {Sumioka2013b.pdf:pdf/Sumioka2013b.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Language                 = {en},
  Reviewed                 = {Y}
}
Yu Tsuruda, Maiya Hori, Hiroki Yoshimura, Yoshio Iwai, "Generation of Facial Expression Emphasized with Cartoon Techniques Using a Cellular-phone-type Teleoperated Robot with a Mobile Projector", In International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (HCI 2013), Human-Computer Interaction. Towards Intelligent and Implicit Interaction, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, vol. 8008, Las Vegas, NV, USA, pp. 391-400, July, 2013.
Abstract: We propose a method for generating facial expressions emphasized with cartoon techniques using a cellular-phone-type teleoperated android with a mobile projector. Elfoid is designed to transmit the speaker’s presence to their communication partner using a camera and microphone, and has a soft exterior that provides the look and feel of human skin. To transmit the speaker’s presence, Elfoid sends not only the voice of the speaker but also emotional information captured by the camera and microphone. Elfoid cannot, however, display facial expressions because of its compactness and a lack of sufficiently small actuator motors. In this research, facial expressions are generated using Elfoid’s head-mounted mobile projector to overcome the problem. Additionally, facial expressions are emphasized using cartoon techniques: movements around the mouth and eyes are emphasized, the silhouette of the face and shapes of the eyes are varied by projection effects, and color stimuli that induce a particular emotion are added. In an experiment, representative face expressions are generated with Elfoid and emotions conveyed to users are investigated by subjective evaluation.
BibTeX:
@INPROCEEDINGS{Tsuruda2013,
  author = {Yu Tsuruda and Maiya Hori and Hiroki Yoshimura and Yoshio Iwai},
  title = {Generation of Facial Expression Emphasized with Cartoon Techniques
	Using a Cellular-phone-type Teleoperated Robot with a Mobile Projector},
  booktitle = {International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (HCI 2013),
	Human-Computer Interaction. Towards Intelligent and Implicit Interaction},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {8008},
  pages = {391-400},
  address = {Las Vegas, NV, USA},
  month = Jul,
  publisher = {Springer Berlin Heidelberg},
  abstract = {We propose a method for generating facial expressions emphasized with
	cartoon techniques using a cellular-phone-type teleoperated android
	with a mobile projector. Elfoid is designed to transmit the speaker’s
	presence to their communication partner using a camera and microphone,
	and has a soft exterior that provides the look and feel of human
	skin. To transmit the speaker’s presence, Elfoid sends not only the
	voice of the speaker but also emotional information captured by the
	camera and microphone. Elfoid cannot, however, display facial expressions
	because of its compactness and a lack of sufficiently small actuator
	motors. In this research, facial expressions are generated using
	Elfoid’s head-mounted mobile projector to overcome the problem. Additionally,
	facial expressions are emphasized using cartoon techniques: movements
	around the mouth and eyes are emphasized, the silhouette of the face
	and shapes of the eyes are varied by projection effects, and color
	stimuli that induce a particular emotion are added. In an experiment,
	representative face expressions are generated with Elfoid and emotions
	conveyed to users are investigated by subjective evaluation.},
  day = {21-26},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-39342-6_43},
  file = {Tsuruda2013.pdf:pdf/Tsuruda2013.pdf:PDF},
  url = {http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-39342-6_43}
}
Yuhei Fujie, Maiya Hori, Hiroki Yoshimura, Yoshio Iwai, "Emotion Transmission by Color Effects for a Teleoperated Mobile Communication Robot", In HRI 2013 Workshop on Design of Humanlikeness in HRI from uncanny valley to minimal design, Tokyo, pp. 19-25, March, 2013.
Abstract: We propose a method to convey emotions by us- ing color effects for a cellular-phone-type teleoperated android called Elfoid. Video-conferencing and videotelephony are used as tools for communication between people in remote locations. These conventional systems are insufficient to convey the human presence that plays an important role in communication with a partner. Elfoid is designed to transmit the speaker’s presence to their communication partner using a camera and microphone, and has a soft exterior that provides the look and feel of human skin. To transmit the speaker’s presence, Elfoid sends not only the voice of the speaker, but also emotional information captured by the camera and microphone. Elfoid cannot, however, display facial expressions because of its compactness and a lack of sufficiently small actuator motors. We therefore use light-emitting diodes and generate color patterns to represent the speaker’s emotion as estimated by the camera. We focus on emotions that can be conveyed by Elfoid through light emission. It is widely recognized that colors have a strong effect on our emotions and feelings. However, conventional studies using robots with similar appearances to humans have not investigated the color effects. In our experiments, we investigate the emotions conveyed by Elfoid by emitting various light patterns.
BibTeX:
@INPROCEEDINGS{Fujie2013,
  author = {Yuhei Fujie and Maiya Hori and Hiroki Yoshimura and Yoshio Iwai},
  title = {Emotion Transmission by Color Effects for a Teleoperated Mobile Communication
	Robot},
  booktitle = {{HRI} 2013 Workshop on Design of Humanlikeness in {HRI} from uncanny
	valley to minimal design},
  year = {2013},
  pages = {19-25},
  address = {Tokyo},
  month = Mar,
  abstract = {We propose a method to convey emotions by us- ing color effects for
	a cellular-phone-type teleoperated android called Elfoid. Video-conferencing
	and videotelephony are used as tools for communication between people
	in remote locations. These conventional systems are insufficient
	to convey the human presence that plays an important role in communication
	with a partner. Elfoid is designed to transmit the speaker’s presence
	to their communication partner using a camera and microphone, and
	has a soft exterior that provides the look and feel of human skin.
	To transmit the speaker’s presence, Elfoid sends not only the voice
	of the speaker, but also emotional information captured by the camera
	and microphone. Elfoid cannot, however, display facial expressions
	because of its compactness and a lack of sufficiently small actuator
	motors. We therefore use light-emitting diodes and generate color
	patterns to represent the speaker’s emotion as estimated by the camera.
	We focus on emotions that can be conveyed by Elfoid through light
	emission. It is widely recognized that colors have a strong effect
	on our emotions and feelings. However, conventional studies using
	robots with similar appearances to humans have not investigated the
	color effects. In our experiments, we investigate the emotions conveyed
	by Elfoid by emitting various light patterns.},
  day = {3},
}
Rosario Sorbello, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Antonio Chella, Shuichi Nishio, Giovan Battista Presti, Marcello Giardina, "Telenoid mediated ACT Protocol to Increase Acceptance of Disease among Siblings of Autistic Children", In HRI2013 Workshop on Design of Humanlikeness in HRI : from uncanny valley to minimal design, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 26, March, 2013.
Abstract: We introduce a novel research proposal project aimed to build a robotic setup in which the Telenoid[1] is used as therapist for the sibling of children with autism. Many existing research studies have shown good results relating to the important impact of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)[2] applied to siblings of children with autism. The overall behaviors of the siblings may potentially benefit from treatment with a humanoid robot therapist instead of a real one. In particular in the present study, Telenoid humanoid robot[3] is used as therapist to achieve a specific therapeutic objective: the acceptance of diversity from the sibling of children with autism. In the proposed architecture, the Telenoid acts[4] in teleoperated mode[5] during the learning phase, while it becomes more and more autonomous during the working phase with patients. A goal of the research is to improve siblings tolerance and acceptance towards their brothers. The use of ACT[6] will reinforce the acceptance of diversity and it will create a psicological flexibilty along the dimension of diversity. In the present article, we briefly introduce Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) as a clinical model and its theoretical foundations (Relational Frame Theory). We then explain the six core processes of Hexaflex model of ACT adapted to Telenoid behaviors acting as humanoid robotic therapist. Finally, we present an experimental example about how Telenoid could apply the six processes[7] of hexaflex model of ACT to the patient during its human-humanoid interaction (HHI) in order to realize an applied clinical behavior analysis[8] that increase in the sibling their acceptance of brother’ disease.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Sorbello2013,
  Title                    = {Telenoid mediated {ACT} Protocol to Increase Acceptance of Disease among Siblings of Autistic Children},
  Author                   = {Rosario Sorbello and Hiroshi Ishiguro and Antonio Chella and Shuichi Nishio and Giovan Battista Presti and Marcello Giardina},
  Booktitle                = {{HRI}2013 Workshop on Design of Humanlikeness in {HRI} : from uncanny valley to minimal design},
  Year                     = {2013},

  Address                  = {Tokyo, Japan},
  Month                    = Mar,
  Pages                    = {26},

  Abstract                 = {We introduce a novel research proposal project aimed to build a robotic setup in which the Telenoid[1] is used as therapist for the sibling of children with autism. Many existing research studies have shown good results relating to the important impact of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)[2] applied to siblings of children with autism. The overall behaviors of the siblings may potentially benefit from treatment with a humanoid robot therapist instead of a real one. In particular in the present study, Telenoid humanoid robot[3] is used as therapist to achieve a specific therapeutic objective: the acceptance of diversity from the sibling of children with autism. In the proposed architecture, the Telenoid acts[4] in teleoperated mode[5] during the learning phase, while it becomes more and more autonomous during the working phase with patients. A goal of the research is to improve siblings tolerance and acceptance towards their brothers. The use of ACT[6] will reinforce the acceptance of diversity and it will create a psicological flexibilty along the dimension of diversity. In the present article, we briefly introduce Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) as a clinical model and its theoretical foundations (Relational Frame Theory). We then explain the six core processes of Hexaflex model of ACT adapted to Telenoid behaviors acting as humanoid robotic therapist. Finally, we present an experimental example about how Telenoid could apply the six processes[7] of hexaflex model of ACT to the patient during its human-humanoid interaction (HHI) in order to realize an applied clinical behavior analysis[8] that increase in the sibling their acceptance of brother’ disease.},
  Day                      = {3},
  File                     = {Sorbello2013.pdf:pdf/Sorbello2013.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Language                 = {en},
  Reviewed                 = {Y}
}
Carlos T. Ishi, Chaoran Liu, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Norihiro Hagita, "Evaluation of formant-based lip motion generation in tele-operated humanoid robots", In IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Vilamoura, Algarve, Portugal, pp. 2377-2382, October, 2012.
Abstract: Generating natural motion in robots is important for improving human-robot interaction. We developed a tele-operation system where the lip motion of a remote humanoid robot is automatically controlled from the operator’s voice. In the present work, we introduce an improved version of our proposed speech-driven lip motion generation method, where lip height and width degrees are estimated based on vowel formant information. The method requires the calibration of only one parameter for speaker normalization. Lip height control is evaluated in two types of humanoid robots (Telenoid-R2 and Geminoid-F). Subjective evaluation indicated that the proposed audio-based method can generate lip motion with naturalness superior to vision-based and motion capture-based approaches. Partial lip width control was shown to improve lip motion naturalness in Geminoid-F, which also has an actuator for stretching the lip corners. Issues regarding online real-time processing are also discussed.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Ishi2012,
  Title                    = {Evaluation of formant-based lip motion generation in tele-operated humanoid robots},
  Author                   = {Carlos T. Ishi and Chaoran Liu and Hiroshi Ishiguro and Norihiro Hagita},
  Booktitle                = {{IEEE/RSJ} International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems},
  Year                     = {2012},

  Address                  = {Vilamoura, Algarve, Portugal},
  Month                    = Oct,
  Pages                    = {2377--2382},

  Abstract                 = {Generating natural motion in robots is important for improving human-robot interaction. We developed a tele-operation system where the lip motion of a remote humanoid robot is automatically controlled from the operator’s voice. In the present work, we introduce an improved version of our proposed speech-driven lip motion generation method, where lip height and width degrees are estimated based on vowel formant information. The method requires the calibration of only one parameter for speaker normalization. Lip height control is evaluated in two types of humanoid robots (Telenoid-R2 and Geminoid-F). Subjective evaluation indicated that the proposed audio-based method can generate lip motion with naturalness superior to vision-based and motion capture-based approaches. Partial lip width control was shown to improve lip motion naturalness in Geminoid-F, which also has an actuator for stretching the lip corners. Issues regarding online real-time processing are also discussed.},
  Day                      = {7-12},
  File                     = {Ishi2012.pdf:pdf/Ishi2012.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Reviewed                 = {Y}
}
Hiroshi Ishiguro, Shuichi Nishi, Antonio Chella, Rosario Sorbello, Giuseppe Balistreri, Marcello Giardina, Carmelo Cali, "Investigating Perceptual Features for a Natural Human - Humanoid Robot Interaction inside a Spontaneous Setting", In Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures 2012, Palermo, Italy, October, 2012.
Abstract: The present paper aims to validate our research on human-humanoid interaction (HHMI) using the minimalistic humanoid robot Telenoid. We have conducted human-robot interactions test with 100 young people with no prier interaction experience with this robot. The main goal is the analysis of the two social dimension (perception and believability) useful for increasing the natural behavior between users and Telenoid. We administrated our custom questionnaire to these subjects after a well defined experimental setting (ordinary and goal-guided task). After the analysis of the questionnaires, we obtained the proof that perceptual and believability conditions are necessary social dimensions for a success fully and efficiency HHI interaction in every daylife activities.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Ishiguro2012a,
  Title                    = {Investigating Perceptual Features for a Natural Human - Humanoid Robot Interaction inside a Spontaneous Setting},
  Author                   = {Hiroshi Ishiguro and Shuichi Nishi and Antonio Chella and Rosario Sorbello and Giuseppe Balistreri and Marcello Giardina and Carmelo Cali},
  Booktitle                = {Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures 2012},
  Year                     = {2012},

  Address                  = {Palermo, Italy},
  Month                    = Oct,

  Abstract                 = {The present paper aims to validate our research on human-humanoid interaction (HHMI) using the minimalistic humanoid robot Telenoid. We have conducted human-robot interactions test with 100 young people with no prier interaction experience with this robot. The main goal is the analysis of the two social dimension (perception and believability) useful for increasing the natural behavior between users and Telenoid. We administrated our custom questionnaire to these subjects after a well defined experimental setting (ordinary and goal-guided task). After the analysis of the questionnaires, we obtained the proof that perceptual and believability conditions are necessary social dimensions for a success fully and efficiency HHI interaction in every daylife activities.},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Reviewed                 = {Y}
}
Martin Cooney, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Recognizing Affection for a Touch-based Interaction with a Humanoid Robot", In IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Vilamoura, Algarve, Portugal, pp. 1420-1427, October, 2012.
Abstract: In order to facilitate integration into domestic and public environments, companion robots can seek to communicate in a familiar, socially intelligent´ manner, recognizing typical behaviors which people direct toward them. One important type of behavior to recognize is the displaying and seeking of affection, which is fundamentally associated with the modality of touch. This paper identifies how people communicate affection through touching a humanoid robot appearance, and reports on the development of a recognition system exploring the modalities of touch and vision. Results of evaluation indicate the proposed system can recognize people's affectionate behavior in the designated context.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Cooney2012a,
  Title                    = {Recognizing Affection for a Touch-based Interaction with a Humanoid Robot},
  Author                   = {Martin Cooney and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Booktitle                = {{IEEE/RSJ} International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems},
  Year                     = {2012},

  Address                  = {Vilamoura, Algarve, Portugal},
  Month                    = Oct,
  Pages                    = {1420--1427},

  Abstract                 = {In order to facilitate integration into domestic and public environments, companion robots can seek to communicate in a familiar, socially intelligent´ manner, recognizing typical behaviors which people direct toward them. One important type of behavior to recognize is the displaying and seeking of affection, which is fundamentally associated with the modality of touch. This paper identifies how people communicate affection through touching a humanoid robot appearance, and reports on the development of a recognition system exploring the modalities of touch and vision. Results of evaluation indicate the proposed system can recognize people's affectionate behavior in the designated context.},
  Acknowledgement          = {We'd like to thank Takashi Minato for help with the skin sensors, and everyone else who supported this project.},
  Day                      = {7-12},
  File                     = {Cooney2012a.pdf:Cooney2012a.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Reviewed                 = {Y}
}
Ryuji Yamazaki, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Marco Nørskov, Nobu Ishiguro, Giuseppe Balistreri, "Social Acceptance of a Teleoperated Android: Field Study on Elderly’s Engagement with an Embodied Communication Medium in Denmark", In International Conference on Social Robotics, Chengdu, China, pp. 428-437, October, 2012.
Abstract: We explored the potential of teleoperated android robots, which are embodied telecommunication media with humanlike appearances, and how they affect people in the real world when they are employed to express a telepresence and a sense of ‘being there’. In Denmark, our exploratory study focused on the social aspects of Telenoid, a teleoperated android, which might facilitate communication between senior citizens and Telenoid’s operator. After applying it to the elderly in their homes, we found that the elderly assumed positive attitudes toward Telenoid, and their positivity and strong attachment to its huggable minimalistic human design were cross-culturally shared in Denmark and Japan. Contrary to the negative reactions by non-users in media reports, our result suggests that teleoperated androids can be accepted by the elderly as a kind of universal design medium for social inclusion.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Yamazaki2012c,
  Title                    = {Social Acceptance of a Teleoperated Android: Field Study on Elderly’s Engagement with an Embodied Communication Medium in Denmark},
  Author                   = {Ryuji Yamazaki and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro and Marco N\orskov and Nobu Ishiguro and Giuseppe Balistreri},
  Booktitle                = {International Conference on Social Robotics},
  Year                     = {2012},

  Address                  = {Chengdu, China},
  Month                    = Oct,
  Pages                    = {428-437},

  Abstract                 = {We explored the potential of teleoperated android robots, which are embodied telecommunication media with humanlike appearances, and how they affect people in the real world when they are employed to express a telepresence and a sense of ‘being there’. In Denmark, our exploratory study focused on the social aspects of Telenoid, a teleoperated android, which might facilitate communication between senior citizens and Telenoid’s operator. After applying it to the elderly in their homes, we found that the elderly assumed positive attitudes toward Telenoid, and their positivity and strong attachment to its huggable minimalistic human design were cross-culturally shared in Denmark and Japan. Contrary to the negative reactions by non-users in media reports, our result suggests that teleoperated androids can be accepted by the elderly as a kind of universal design medium for social inclusion.},
  Acknowledgement          = {This work was partially supported by {JST}, CREST.},
  Day                      = {29-31},
  Doi                      = {10.1007/978-3-642-34103-8_43},
  File                     = {Yamazaki2012c.pdf:pdf/Yamazaki2012c.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Keywords                 = {android;teleoperation;minimal design;communication;embodiment;inclusion;acceptability;elderly care},
  Reviewed                 = {Y},
  Url                      = {http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-34103-8_43}
}
Ryuji Yamazaki, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Takashi Minato, Marco Nørskov, Nobu Ishiguro, Masaru Nishikawa, Tsutomu Fujinami, "Social Inclusion of Senior Citizens by a Teleoperated Android : Toward Inter-generational TeleCommunity Creation", In 2012 IEEE International Workshop on Assistance and Service Robotics in a Human Environment, International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Vilamoura, Algarve, Portugal, pp. 53-58, October, 2012.
Abstract: As populations continue to age, there is a growing need for assistive technologies that help senior citizens maintain their autonomy and enjoy their lives. We explore the potential of teleoperated androids, which are embodied telecommunication media with humanlike appearances. Our exploratory study focused on the social aspects of Telenoid, a teleoperated android designed as a minimalistic human, which might facilitate communication between senior citizens and its operators. We conducted cross-cultural field trials in Japan and Denmark by introducing Telenoid into care facilities and the private homes of seniors to observe how they responded to it. In Japan, we set up a teleoperation system in an elementary school and investigated how it shaped communication through the internet between the elderly in a care facility and the children who acted as teleoperators. In both countries, the elderly commonly assumed positive attitudes toward Telenoid and imaginatively developed various dialogue strategies. Telenoid lowered the barriers for the children as operators for communicating with demented seniors so that they became more relaxed to participate in and positively continue conversations using Telenoid. Our results suggest that its minimalistic human design is inclusive for seniors with or without dementia and facilitates inter-generational communication, which may be expanded to a social network of trans-national supportive relationships among all generations.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Yamazaki2012d,
  Title                    = {Social Inclusion of Senior Citizens by a Teleoperated Android : Toward Inter-generational TeleCommunity Creation},
  Author                   = {Ryuji Yamazaki and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro and Takashi Minato and Marco N\orskov and Nobu Ishiguro and Masaru Nishikawa and Tsutomu Fujinami},
  Booktitle                = {2012 {IEEE} International Workshop on Assistance and Service Robotics in a Human Environment, International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems},
  Year                     = {2012},

  Address                  = {Vilamoura, Algarve, Portugal},
  Month                    = Oct,
  Pages                    = {53--58},

  Abstract                 = {As populations continue to age, there is a growing need for assistive technologies that help senior citizens maintain their autonomy and enjoy their lives. We explore the potential of teleoperated androids, which are embodied telecommunication media with humanlike appearances. Our exploratory study focused on the social aspects of Telenoid, a teleoperated android designed as a minimalistic human, which might facilitate communication between senior citizens and its operators. We conducted cross-cultural field trials in Japan and Denmark by introducing Telenoid into care facilities and the private homes of seniors to observe how they responded to it. In Japan, we set up a teleoperation system in an elementary school and investigated how it shaped communication through the internet between the elderly in a care facility and the children who acted as teleoperators. In both countries, the elderly commonly assumed positive attitudes toward Telenoid and imaginatively developed various dialogue strategies. Telenoid lowered the barriers for the children as operators for communicating with demented seniors so that they became more relaxed to participate in and positively continue conversations using Telenoid. Our results suggest that its minimalistic human design is inclusive for seniors with or without dementia and facilitates inter-generational communication, which may be expanded to a social network of trans-national supportive relationships among all generations.},
  Day                      = {7-12},
  File                     = {Yamazaki2012d.pdf:Yamazaki2012d.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST; 基盤B},
  Reviewed                 = {Y}
}
Takashi Minato, Hidenobu Sumioka, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Studying the Influence of Handheld Robotic Media on Social Communications", In the RO-MAN 2012 workshop on social robotic telepresence, Paris, France, pp. 15-16, September, 2012.
Abstract: This paper describes research issues on social robotic telepresence using “Elfoid.” It is a portable tele-operated humanoid that is designed to transfer individuals’ presence to remote places at anytime, anywhere, to provide a new communication style in which individuals talk with persons in remote locations in such a way that they feel each other’s presence. However, it is not known how people adapt to the new communication style and how social communications change by Elfoid. Investigating the influence of Elfoid on social communications are very interesting in the view of social robotic telepresence. This paper introduces Elfoid and shows the position of our studies in social robotic telepresence.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Minato2012c,
  Title                    = {Studying the Influence of Handheld Robotic Media on Social Communications},
  Author                   = {Takashi Minato and Hidenobu Sumioka and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Booktitle                = {the {RO-MAN} 2012 workshop on social robotic telepresence},
  Year                     = {2012},

  Address                  = {Paris, France},
  Month                    = Sep,
  Pages                    = {15--16},

  Abstract                 = {This paper describes research issues on social robotic telepresence using “Elfoid.” It is a portable tele-operated humanoid that is designed to transfer individuals’ presence to remote places at anytime, anywhere, to provide a new communication style in which individuals talk with persons in remote locations in such a way that they feel each other’s presence. However, it is not known how people adapt to the new communication style and how social communications change by Elfoid. Investigating the influence of Elfoid on social communications are very interesting in the view of social robotic telepresence. This paper introduces Elfoid and shows the position of our studies in social robotic telepresence.},
  Day                      = {9-13},
  File                     = {Minato2012c.pdf:Minato2012c.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Reviewed                 = {Y}
}
Carlos T. Ishi, Chaoran Liu, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Norihiro Hagita, "Evaluation of a formant-based speech-driven lip motion generation", In 13th Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association, Portland, Oregon, pp. P1a.04, September, 2012.
Abstract: The background of the present work is the development of a tele-presence robot system where the lip motion of a remote humanoid robot is automatically controlled from the operator’s voice. In the present paper, we introduce an improved version of our proposed speech-driven lip motion generation method, where lip height and width degrees are estimated based on vowel formant information. The method requires the calibration of only one parameter for speaker normalization, so that no training of dedicated models is necessary. Lip height control is evaluated in a female android robot and in animated lips. Subjective evaluation indicated that naturalness of lip motion generated in the robot is improved by the inclusion of a partial lip width control (with stretching of the lip corners). Highest naturalness scores were achieved for the animated lips, showing the effectiveness of the proposed method.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Ishi2012b,
  Title                    = {Evaluation of a formant-based speech-driven lip motion generation},
  Author                   = {Carlos T. Ishi and Chaoran Liu and Hiroshi Ishiguro and Norihiro Hagita},
  Booktitle                = {13th Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association},
  Year                     = {2012},

  Address                  = {Portland, Oregon},
  Month                    = Sep,
  Pages                    = {P1a.04},

  Abstract                 = {The background of the present work is the development of a tele-presence robot system where the lip motion of a remote humanoid robot is automatically controlled from the operator’s voice. In the present paper, we introduce an improved version of our proposed speech-driven lip motion generation method, where lip height and width degrees are estimated based on vowel formant information. The method requires the calibration of only one parameter for speaker normalization, so that no training of dedicated models is necessary. Lip height control is evaluated in a female android robot and in animated lips. Subjective evaluation indicated that naturalness of lip motion generated in the robot is improved by the inclusion of a partial lip width control (with stretching of the lip corners). Highest naturalness scores were achieved for the animated lips, showing the effectiveness of the proposed method.},
  Acknowledgement          = {This work was partly supported by {JST/CREST}.},
  Day                      = {9-13},
  File                     = {Ishi2012b.pdf:pdf/Ishi2012b.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Keywords                 = {lip motion, formant, tele-operation, humanoid robot},
  Reviewed                 = {Y}
}
Kaiko Kuwamura, Takashi Minato, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Personality Distortion in Communication through Teleoperated Robots", In IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, Paris, France, pp. 49-54, September, 2012.
Abstract: Recent research has focused on such physical communication media as teleoperated robots, which provide a feeling of being with people in remote places. Recent invented media resemble cute animals or imaginary creatures that quickly attract attention. However, such appearances could distort tele-communications because they are different from human beings. This paper studies the effect on the speaker's personality that is transmitted through physical media by regarding appearances as a function that transmits the speaker's information. Although communication media's capability to transmit information reportedly influences conversations in many aspects, the effect of appearances remains unclear. To reveal the effect of appearance, we compared three appearances of communication media: stuffed-bear teleoperated robot, human-like teleoperated robot, and video chat. Our results show that communication media whose appearance greatly differs from that of the speaker distorts the personality perceived by interlocutors. This paper suggests that the design of the appearance of physical communication media needs to be carefully selected.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Kuwamura2012,
  Title                    = {Personality Distortion in Communication through Teleoperated Robots},
  Author                   = {Kaiko Kuwamura and Takashi Minato and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Booktitle                = {{IEEE} International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication},
  Year                     = {2012},

  Address                  = {Paris, France},
  Month                    = Sep,
  Pages                    = {49--54},

  Abstract                 = {Recent research has focused on such physical communication media as teleoperated robots, which provide a feeling of being with people in remote places. Recent invented media resemble cute animals or imaginary creatures that quickly attract attention. However, such appearances could distort tele-communications because they are different from human beings. This paper studies the effect on the speaker's personality that is transmitted through physical media by regarding appearances as a function that transmits the speaker's information. Although communication media's capability to transmit information reportedly influences conversations in many aspects, the effect of appearances remains unclear. To reveal the effect of appearance, we compared three appearances of communication media: stuffed-bear teleoperated robot, human-like teleoperated robot, and video chat. Our results show that communication media whose appearance greatly differs from that of the speaker distorts the personality perceived by interlocutors. This paper suggests that the design of the appearance of physical communication media needs to be carefully selected.},
  Day                      = {9-13},
  File                     = {Kuwamura2012.pdf:pdf/Kuwamura2012.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Reviewed                 = {Y}
}
Martin Cooney, Francesco Zanlungo, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Designing a Flying Humanoid Robot (FHR): Effects of Flight on Interactive Communication", In IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, Paris, France, pp. 364-371, September, 2012.
Abstract: This research constitutes an initial investigation into key issues which arise in designing a flying humanoid robot (FHR), with a focus on human-robot interaction (HRI). The humanoid form offers an interface for natural communication; flight offers excellent mobility. Combining both will yield companion robots capable of approaching, accompanying, and communicating naturally with humans in difficult environments. Problematic is how such a robot should best fly around humans, and what effect the robot’s flight will have on a person in terms of paralinguistic (non-verbal) cues. To answer these questions, we propose an extension to existing proxemics theory (“z-proxemics”) and predict how typical humanoid flight motions will be perceived. Data obtained from participants watching animated sequences are analyzed to check our predictions. The paper also reports on the building of a flying humanoid robot, which we will use in interactions.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Cooney2012b,
  Title                    = {Designing a Flying Humanoid Robot ({FHR}): Effects of Flight on Interactive Communication},
  Author                   = {Martin Cooney and Francesco Zanlungo and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Booktitle                = {{IEEE} International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication},
  Year                     = {2012},

  Address                  = {Paris, France},
  Month                    = Sep,
  Pages                    = {364--371},

  Abstract                 = {This research constitutes an initial investigation into key issues which arise in designing a flying humanoid robot ({FHR}), with a focus on human-robot interaction ({HRI}). The humanoid form offers an interface for natural communication; flight offers excellent mobility. Combining both will yield companion robots capable of approaching, accompanying, and communicating naturally with humans in difficult environments. Problematic is how such a robot should best fly around humans, and what effect the robot’s flight will have on a person in terms of paralinguistic (non-verbal) cues. To answer these questions, we propose an extension to existing proxemics theory (“z-proxemics”) and predict how typical humanoid flight motions will be perceived. Data obtained from participants watching animated sequences are analyzed to check our predictions. The paper also reports on the building of a flying humanoid robot, which we will use in interactions.},
  Acknowledgement          = {We'd like to thank everyone who helped with this project.},
  Day                      = {9-13},
  Doi                      = {10.1109/ROMAN.2012.6343780},
  File                     = {Cooney2012b.pdf:Cooney2012b.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {基盤S; CREST},
  Reviewed                 = {Y}
}
Hidenobu Sumioka, Shuichi Nishio, Erina Okamoto, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Isolation of physical traits and conversational content for personality design", Poster presentation at IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, Paris, France, pp. 596-601, September, 2012.
Abstract: In this paper, we propose the "Doppel teleoperation system,'' which isolates several physical traits from a speaker, to investigate how personal information is conveyed to others during conversation. An underlying problem on designing personality in social robots is that it remains unclear how humans judge the personalities of conversation partners. With the Doppel system, for each of the communication channels to be transferred, one can choose it in its original form or in the one generated by the system. For example, voice and body motions can be replaced by the Doppel system while preserving the speech content. This allows us to analyze the individual effects of the physical traits of the speaker and the content in the speaker's speech on the identification of personality. This selectivity of personal traits provides a useful approach to investigate which information conveys our personality through conversation. To show the potential of our system, we experimentally tested how much the conversation content conveys the personality of speakers to interlocutors without any of their physical traits. Preliminary results show that although interlocutors have difficulty identifying speakers only using conversational contents, they can recognize their acquaintances when their acquaintances are the speakers. We point out some potential physical traits to convey personality
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Sumioka2012d,
  Title                    = {Isolation of physical traits and conversational content for personality design},
  Author                   = {Hidenobu Sumioka and Shuichi Nishio and Erina Okamoto and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Booktitle                = {{IEEE} International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication},
  Year                     = {2012},

  Address                  = {Paris, France},
  Month                    = Sep,
  Pages                    = {596--601},

  Abstract                 = {In this paper, we propose the "Doppel teleoperation system,'' which isolates several physical traits from a speaker, to investigate how personal information is conveyed to others during conversation. An underlying problem on designing personality in social robots is that it remains unclear how humans judge the personalities of conversation partners. With the Doppel system, for each of the communication channels to be transferred, one can choose it in its original form or in the one generated by the system. For example, voice and body motions can be replaced by the Doppel system while preserving the speech content. This allows us to analyze the individual effects of the physical traits of the speaker and the content in the speaker's speech on the identification of personality. This selectivity of personal traits provides a useful approach to investigate which information conveys our personality through conversation. To show the potential of our system, we experimentally tested how much the conversation content conveys the personality of speakers to interlocutors without any of their physical traits. Preliminary results show that although interlocutors have difficulty identifying speakers only using conversational contents, they can recognize their acquaintances when their acquaintances are the speakers. We point out some potential physical traits to convey personality},
  Acknowledgement          = {This research was supported by Grant-in Aid for Scientific Research ({S}), {KAKEN} (20220002) and {JST}, {CREST}. HS thanks M. Shimada for valuable comments.},
  Category                 = {ポスター},
  Day                      = {9-13},
  Doi                      = {10.1109/ROMAN.2012.6343816},
  File                     = {Sumioka2012d.pdf:Sumioka2012d.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {基盤S; CREST},
  Reviewed                 = {Y}
}
Hidenobu Sumioka, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Teleoperated android for mediated communication : body ownership, personality distortion, and minimal human design", In the RO-MAN 2012 workshop on social robotic telepresence, Paris, France, pp. 32-39, September, 2012.
Abstract: In this paper we discuss the impact of humanlike appearance on telecommunication, giving an overview of studies with teleoperated androids. We show that, due to humanlike appearance, teleoperated androids do not only affect interlocutors communicating with them but also teleoperators controlling them in another location. They enhance teleoperator’s feeling of telepresence by inducing a sense of ownership over their body parts. It is also pointed out that a mismatch between an android and a teleoperator in appearance distorts the teleoperator’s personality to be conveyed to an interlocutor. To overcome this problem, the concept of minimal human likeness design is introduced. We demonstrate that a new teleoperated android developed with the concept reduces the distortion in telecommunication. Finally, some research issues are discussed on a sense of ownership over telerobot’s body, minimal human likeness design, and interface design.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Sumioka2012c,
  Title                    = {Teleoperated android for mediated communication : body ownership, personality distortion, and minimal human design},
  Author                   = {Hidenobu Sumioka and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Booktitle                = {the {RO-MAN} 2012 workshop on social robotic telepresence},
  Year                     = {2012},

  Address                  = {Paris, France},
  Month                    = Sep,
  Pages                    = {32--39},

  Abstract                 = {In this paper we discuss the impact of humanlike appearance on telecommunication, giving an overview of studies with teleoperated androids. We show that, due to humanlike appearance, teleoperated androids do not only affect interlocutors communicating with them but also teleoperators controlling them in another location. They enhance teleoperator’s feeling of telepresence by inducing a sense of ownership over their body parts. It is also pointed out that a mismatch between an android and a teleoperator in appearance distorts the teleoperator’s personality to be conveyed to an interlocutor. To overcome this problem, the concept of minimal human likeness design is introduced. We demonstrate that a new teleoperated android developed with the concept reduces the distortion in telecommunication. Finally, some research issues are discussed on a sense of ownership over telerobot’s body, minimal human likeness design, and interface design.},
  Acknowledgement          = {This work was supported by {JST}, {CREST} and Grant-in-Aid for Scientic Research ({S}), {KAKENHI} (20220002).},
  Day                      = {9-13},
  File                     = {Sumioka2012c.pdf:Sumioka2012c.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST; 基盤S},
  Reviewed                 = {Y}
}
Ryuji Yamazaki, Shuichi Nishio, Kohei Ogawa, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Teleoperated Android as an Embodied Communication Medium: A Case Study with Demented Elderlies in a Care Facility", In IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, Paris, France, pp. 1066-1071, September, 2012.
Abstract: Teleoperated androids, which are robots with humanlike appearances, are being produced as new media of human relationships. We explored the potential of humanoid robots and how they affect people in the real world when they are employed to express a telecommunication presence and a sense of ‘being there’. We introduced Telenoid, a teleoperated android, to a residential care facility to see how the elderly with dementia respond to it. Our exploratory study focused on the social aspects that might facilitate communication between the elderly and Telenoid’s operator. Telenoid elicited positive images and interactive reactions from the elderly with mild dementia, even from those with severe cognitive impairment. They showed strong attachment to its child-like huggable design and became willing to converse with it. Our result suggests that an affectionate bond may be formed between the elderly and the android to provide the operator with easy communication to elicit responses from senior citizens.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Yamazaki2012b,
  Title                    = {Teleoperated Android as an Embodied Communication Medium: A Case Study with Demented Elderlies in a Care Facility},
  Author                   = {Ryuji Yamazaki and Shuichi Nishio and Kohei Ogawa and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Booktitle                = {{IEEE} International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication},
  Year                     = {2012},

  Address                  = {Paris, France},
  Month                    = Sep,
  Pages                    = {1066--1071},

  Abstract                 = {Teleoperated androids, which are robots with humanlike appearances, are being produced as new media of human relationships. We explored the potential of humanoid robots and how they affect people in the real world when they are employed to express a telecommunication presence and a sense of ‘being there’. We introduced Telenoid, a teleoperated android, to a residential care facility to see how the elderly with dementia respond to it. Our exploratory study focused on the social aspects that might facilitate communication between the elderly and Telenoid’s operator. Telenoid elicited positive images and interactive reactions from the elderly with mild dementia, even from those with severe cognitive impairment. They showed strong attachment to its child-like huggable design and became willing to converse with it. Our result suggests that an affectionate bond may be formed between the elderly and the android to provide the operator with easy communication to elicit responses from senior citizens.},
  Day                      = {9-13},
  File                     = {Yamazaki2012b.pdf:Yamazaki2012b.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Reviewed                 = {Y}
}
Hidenobu Sumioka, Takashi Minato, Kurima Sakai, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Motion Design of an Interactive Small Humanoid Robot with Visual Illusion", In The 10th Asia Pacific Conference on Computer Human Interaction, Matsue, Japan, pp. 93-100, August, 2012.
Abstract: We propose a method that enables users to convey nonver- bal information, especially their gestures, through portable robot avatar based on illusory motion. The illusory mo- tion of head nodding is realized with blinking lights for a human-like mobile phone called Elfoid. Two blinking pat- terns of LEDs are designed based on biological motion and illusory motion from shadows. The patterns are compared to select an appropriate pattern for the illusion of motion in terms of the naturalness of movements and quick percep- tion. The result shows that illusory motions show better per- formance than biological motion. We also test whether the illusory motion of head nodding provides a positive effect compared with just blinking lights. In experiments, subjects, who are engaged in role-playing game, are asked to com- plain to Elfoids about their unpleasant situation. The results show that the subject frustration is eased by Elfoid's illusory head nodding.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Sumioka2012a,
  Title                    = {Motion Design of an Interactive Small Humanoid Robot with Visual Illusion},
  Author                   = {Hidenobu Sumioka and Takashi Minato and Kurima Sakai and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Booktitle                = {The 10th Asia Pacific Conference on Computer Human Interaction},
  Year                     = {2012},

  Address                  = {Matsue, Japan},
  Month                    = Aug,
  Pages                    = {93-100},

  Abstract                 = {We propose a method that enables users to convey nonver- bal information, especially their gestures, through portable robot avatar based on illusory motion. The illusory mo- tion of head nodding is realized with blinking lights for a human-like mobile phone called Elfoid. Two blinking pat- terns of LEDs are designed based on biological motion and illusory motion from shadows. The patterns are compared to select an appropriate pattern for the illusion of motion in terms of the naturalness of movements and quick percep- tion. The result shows that illusory motions show better per- formance than biological motion. We also test whether the illusory motion of head nodding provides a positive effect compared with just blinking lights. In experiments, subjects, who are engaged in role-playing game, are asked to com- plain to Elfoids about their unpleasant situation. The results show that the subject frustration is eased by Elfoid's illusory head nodding.},
  Day                      = {28-31},
  File                     = {Sumioka2012a.pdf:Sumioka2012a.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Keywords                 = {telecommunication; nonverbal communication; portable robot avatar; visual illusion of motion},
  Reviewed                 = {Y},
  Url                      = {http://dl.acm.org/authorize?6720741}
}
Shuichi Nishio, "Transmitting human presence with teleoperated androids: from proprioceptive transfer to elderly care", In CogSci2012 Workshop on Teleopearted Android as a Tool for Cognitive Studies, Communication and Art, Sapporo, Japan, August, 2012.
Abstract: Teleoperated androids, robots owning humanlike appearance equipped with semi-autonomous teleoperation facility, was first introduce in 2007 with the public release of Geminoid HI-1. Both its appearance that resembles the source person and its teleoperation functionality serves in making Geminoid as a research tool for seeking the nature of human presence and personality traits, tracing their origins and implementing into robots. Since the development of the first teleoperated android, we have been using them in a variety of domains, from studies on basic human natures to practical applications such as elderly care. In this talk, I will introduce some of our findings and ongoing projects.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Nishio2012d,
  Title                    = {Transmitting human presence with teleoperated androids: from proprioceptive transfer to elderly care},
  Author                   = {Shuichi Nishio},
  Booktitle                = {CogSci2012 Workshop on Teleopearted Android as a Tool for Cognitive Studies, Communication and Art},
  Year                     = {2012},

  Address                  = {Sapporo, Japan},
  Month                    = Aug,

  Abstract                 = {Teleoperated androids, robots owning humanlike appearance equipped with semi-autonomous teleoperation facility, was first introduce in 2007 with the public release of Geminoid HI-1. Both its appearance that resembles the source person and its teleoperation functionality serves in making Geminoid as a research tool for seeking the nature of human presence and personality traits, tracing their origins and implementing into robots. Since the development of the first teleoperated android, we have been using them in a variety of domains, from studies on basic human natures to practical applications such as elderly care. In this talk, I will introduce some of our findings and ongoing projects.},
  Grant                    = {CREST; 基盤S; 萌芽},
  Reviewed                 = {Y}
}
Takashi Minato, Shuichi Nishio, Kohei Ogawa, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Development of Cellphone-type Tele-operated Android", Poster presentation at The 10th Asia Pacific Conference on Computer Human Interaction, Matsue, Japan, pp. 665-666, August, 2012.
Abstract: This paper presents a newly developed portable human-like robotic avatar “Elfoid” which can be a novel communication medium in that a user can talk with another person in a remote location in such a way that they feel each other’s presence. It is designed to convey individuals’ presence using voice, human-like appearance, and touch. Thanks to its cellphone capability, it can be used at anytime, anywhere. The paper describes the design concept of Elfoid and argues research issues on this communication medium.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Minato2012b,
  Title                    = {Development of Cellphone-type Tele-operated Android},
  Author                   = {Takashi Minato and Shuichi Nishio and Kohei Ogawa and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Booktitle                = {The 10th Asia Pacific Conference on Computer Human Interaction},
  Year                     = {2012},

  Address                  = {Matsue, Japan},
  Month                    = Aug,
  Pages                    = {665-666},

  Abstract                 = {This paper presents a newly developed portable human-like robotic avatar “Elfoid” which can be a novel communication medium in that a user can talk with another person in a remote location in such a way that they feel each other’s presence. It is designed to convey individuals’ presence using voice, human-like appearance, and touch. Thanks to its cellphone capability, it can be used at anytime, anywhere. The paper describes the design concept of Elfoid and argues research issues on this communication medium.},
  Category                 = {ポスター},
  Day                      = {28-31},
  File                     = {Minato2012b.pdf:Minato2012b.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Keywords                 = {Communication media; minimal design; human’s presence},
  Reviewed                 = {Y}
}
Hidenobu Sumioka, Shuichi Nishio, Erina Okamoto, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Doppel Teleoperation System: Isolation of physical traits and intelligence for personality study", In Annual meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (CogSci2012), Sapporo Convention Center, pp. 2375-2380, August, 2012.
Abstract: We introduce the “Doppel teleoperation system”, which isolates several physical traits from a speaker, to investigate how personal information is conveyed to other people during conversation. With the Doppel system, one can choose for each of the communication channels to be transferred whether in its original form or in the one generated by the system. For example, the voice and body motion can be replaced by the Doppel system while the speech content is preserved. This will allow us to analyze individual effects of physical traits of the speaker and content in the speaker’s speech on identification of personality. This selectivity of personal traits provides us with useful approach to investigate which information conveys our personality through conversation. To show a potential of this proposed system, we conduct an experiment to test how much the content of conversation conveys the personality of speakers to interlocutors, without any physical traits of the speakers. Preliminary results show that although interlocutors have difficulty identifying their speakers only by using conversational contents, they can recognize their acquaintances when their acquaintances are the speakers. We point out some potential physical traits to convey our personality.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Sumioka2012,
  Title                    = {Doppel Teleoperation System: Isolation of physical traits and intelligence for personality study},
  Author                   = {Hidenobu Sumioka and Shuichi Nishio and Erina Okamoto and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Booktitle                = {Annual meeting of the Cognitive Science Society ({C}og{S}ci2012)},
  Year                     = {2012},

  Address                  = {Sapporo Convention Center},
  Month                    = Aug,
  Pages                    = {2375-2380},

  Abstract                 = {We introduce the “Doppel teleoperation system”, which isolates several physical traits from a speaker, to investigate how personal information is conveyed to other people during conversation. With the Doppel system, one can choose for each of the communication channels to be transferred whether in its original form or in the one generated by the system. For example, the voice and body motion can be replaced by the Doppel system while the speech content is preserved. This will allow us to analyze individual effects of physical traits of the speaker and content in the speaker’s speech on identification of personality. This selectivity of personal traits provides us with useful approach to investigate which information conveys our personality through conversation. To show a potential of this proposed system, we conduct an experiment to test how much the content of conversation conveys the personality of speakers to interlocutors, without any physical traits of the speakers. Preliminary results show that although interlocutors have difficulty identifying their speakers only by using conversational contents, they can recognize their acquaintances when their acquaintances are the speakers. We point out some potential physical traits to convey our personality.},
  Acknowledgement          = {This research was supported by Grant-in Aid for Scientific Research (S), {KAKENHI} (20220002) and {JST}, {CREST}. HS thanks M. Shimada for valuable comments.},
  Day                      = {1-4},
  File                     = {Sumioka2012.pdf:Sumioka2012.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST;基盤S},
  Keywords                 = {social cognition; android science; human-robot interaction; personality psychology; personal presence},
  Reviewed                 = {Y},
  Url                      = {http://mindmodeling.org/cogsci2012/papers/0413/paper0413.pdf}
}
Hiroshi Ishiguro, Shuichi Nishio, Antonio Chella, Rosario Sorbello, Giuseppe Balistreri, Marcello Giardina, Carmelo Cali, "Perceptual Social Dimensions of Human-Humanoid Robot Interaction", In The 12th International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, vol. 194, Jeju International Convention Center, Korea, pp. 409-421, June, 2012.
Abstract: The present paper aims at a descriptive analysis of the main perceptual and social features of natural conditions of agent interaction, which can be specified by agent in human- humanoid robot interaction. A principled approach to human- robot interaction may be assumed to comply with the natural conditions of agents overt perceptual and social behaviour. To validate our research we used the minimalistic humanoid robot Telenoid. We have conducted human-robot interactions test with people with no prior interaction experience with robot. By administrating our questionnaire to subject after well defined experimental conditions, an analysis of significant variance corre- lation among dimensions in ordinary and goal guided contexts of interaction has been performed in order to prove that perception and believability are indicators of social interaction and increase the degree of interaction in human-humanoid interaction. The experimental results showed that Telenoid is seen from the users as an autonomous agent on its own rather than a teleoperated artificial agent and as a believable agent for its naturally acting in response to human agent actions.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Ishiguro2012,
  Title                    = {Perceptual Social Dimensions of Human-Humanoid Robot Interaction},
  Author                   = {Hiroshi Ishiguro and Shuichi Nishio and Antonio Chella and Rosario Sorbello and Giuseppe Balistreri and Marcello Giardina and Carmelo Cali},
  Booktitle                = {The 12th International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems},
  Year                     = {2012},

  Address                  = {Jeju International Convention Center, Korea},
  Month                    = Jun,
  Pages                    = {409-421},
  Publisher                = {Springer Berlin Heidelberg},
  Series                   = {Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing},
  Volume                   = {194},

  Abstract                 = {The present paper aims at a descriptive analysis of the main perceptual and social features of natural conditions of agent interaction, which can be specified by agent in human- humanoid robot interaction. A principled approach to human- robot interaction may be assumed to comply with the natural conditions of agents overt perceptual and social behaviour. To validate our research we used the minimalistic humanoid robot Telenoid. We have conducted human-robot interactions test with people with no prior interaction experience with robot. By administrating our questionnaire to subject after well defined experimental conditions, an analysis of significant variance corre- lation among dimensions in ordinary and goal guided contexts of interaction has been performed in order to prove that perception and believability are indicators of social interaction and increase the degree of interaction in human-humanoid interaction. The experimental results showed that Telenoid is seen from the users as an autonomous agent on its own rather than a teleoperated artificial agent and as a believable agent for its naturally acting in response to human agent actions.},
  Day                      = {26-29},
  Doi                      = {10.1007/978-3-642-33932-5_38},
  File                     = {Ishiguro2012.pdf:Ishiguro2012.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Keywords                 = {Telenoid, Geminoid, Human Robot Interaction, Social Robot, Humanoid Robot},
  Reviewed                 = {Y},
  Url                      = {http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-33932-5_38}
}
Ryuji Yamazaki, Shuichi Nishio, Kohei Ogawa, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Kohei Matsumura, Kensuke Koda, Tsutomu Fujinami, "How Does Telenoid Affect the Communication between Children in Classroom Setting ?", In Extended Abstracts of the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Austin, Texas, USA, pp. 351-366, May, 2012.
Abstract: Recent advances in robotics have produced kinds of robots that are not only autonomous but can also tele- operated and have humanlike appearances. However, it is not sufficiently investigated how the tele-operated humanoid robots can affect and be accepted by people in a real world. In the present study, we investigated how elementary school children accepted Telenoid R1, a tele-operated humanoid robot. We conducted a school-based action research project to explore their responses to the robot. Our research theme was the social aspects that might facilitate communication and the purpose was problem finding. There have been considerable studies for resolving the remote disadvantage; although face-to-face is always supposed to be the best way for our communication, we ask whether it is possible to determine the primacy of remote communication over face-to-face. As a result of the field experiment in a school, the structure of children's group work changed and their attitude turned more positive than usual. Their spontaneity was brought out and role differentiation occurred with them. Mainly due to the limitations by Telenoid, children changed their attitude and could cooperatively work. The result suggested that the remote communication that set a limit to our capability could be useful for us to know and be trained the effective way to work more cooperatively than usual face-to-face. It remained as future work to compare Telenoid with various media and to explore the appropriate conditions that promote our cooperation.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Yamazaki2012,
  Title                    = {How Does Telenoid Affect the Communication between Children in Classroom Setting ?},
  Author                   = {Ryuji Yamazaki and Shuichi Nishio and Kohei Ogawa and Hiroshi Ishiguro and Kohei Matsumura and Kensuke Koda and Tsutomu Fujinami},
  Booktitle                = {Extended Abstracts of the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems},
  Year                     = {2012},

  Address                  = {Austin, Texas, {USA}},
  Month                    = May,
  Pages                    = {351-366},

  Abstract                 = {Recent advances in robotics have produced kinds of robots that are not only autonomous but can also tele- operated and have humanlike appearances. However, it is not sufficiently investigated how the tele-operated humanoid robots can affect and be accepted by people in a real world. In the present study, we investigated how elementary school children accepted Telenoid R1, a tele-operated humanoid robot. We conducted a school-based action research project to explore their responses to the robot. Our research theme was the social aspects that might facilitate communication and the purpose was problem finding. There have been considerable studies for resolving the remote disadvantage; although face-to-face is always supposed to be the best way for our communication, we ask whether it is possible to determine the primacy of remote communication over face-to-face. As a result of the field experiment in a school, the structure of children's group work changed and their attitude turned more positive than usual. Their spontaneity was brought out and role differentiation occurred with them. Mainly due to the limitations by Telenoid, children changed their attitude and could cooperatively work. The result suggested that the remote communication that set a limit to our capability could be useful for us to know and be trained the effective way to work more cooperatively than usual face-to-face. It remained as future work to compare Telenoid with various media and to explore the appropriate conditions that promote our cooperation.},
  Acknowledgement          = {This research was partially supported by {JST},{CREST}.},
  Day                      = {5-10},
  Doi                      = {10.1145/2212776.2212814},
  File                     = {Yamazaki2012.pdf:Yamazaki2012.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Keywords                 = {Tele-operation; android; minimal design; human interaction; role differentiation; cooperation},
  Reviewed                 = {Y},
  Url                      = {http://dl.acm.org/authorize?6764060}
}
Chaoran Liu, Carlos T. Ishi, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Norihiro Hagita, "Generation of nodding, head tilting and eye gazing for human-robot dialogue interaction", In ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human Robot Interaction, Boston, USA, pp. 285-292, March, 2012.
Abstract: Head motion occurs naturally and in synchrony with speech during human dialogue communication, and may carry paralinguistic information, such as intentions, attitudes and emotions. Therefore, natural-looking head motion by a robot is important for smooth human-robot interaction. Based on rules inferred from analyses of the relationship between head motion and dialogue acts, this paper proposes a model for generating head tilting and nodding, and evaluates the model using three types of humanoid robot (a very human-like android, ``Geminoid F'', a typical humanoid robot with less facial degrees of freedom, ``Robovie R2'', and a robot with a 3- axis rotatable neck and movable lips, ``Telenoid R2''). Analysis of subjective scores shows that the proposed model including head tilting and nodding can generate head motion with increased naturalness compared to nodding only and directly mapping people's original motions without gaze information. We also find that an upwards motion of a robot's face can be used by robots which do not have a mouth in order to provide the appearance that utterance is taking place. Finally, we conduct an experiment in which participants act as visitors to an information desk attended by robots. As a consequence, we verify that our generation model performs equally to directly mapping people's original motions with gaze information in terms of perceived naturalness.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Liu2012,
  Title                    = {Generation of nodding, head tilting and eye gazing for human-robot dialogue interaction},
  Author                   = {Chaoran Liu and Carlos T. Ishi and Hiroshi Ishiguro and Norihiro Hagita},
  Booktitle                = {{ACM/IEEE} International Conference on Human Robot Interaction},
  Year                     = {2012},

  Address                  = {Boston, USA},
  Month                    = Mar,
  Pages                    = {285--292},

  Abstract                 = {Head motion occurs naturally and in synchrony with speech during human dialogue communication, and may carry paralinguistic information, such as intentions, attitudes and emotions. Therefore, natural-looking head motion by a robot is important for smooth human-robot interaction. Based on rules inferred from analyses of the relationship between head motion and dialogue acts, this paper proposes a model for generating head tilting and nodding, and evaluates the model using three types of humanoid robot (a very human-like android, ``Geminoid F'', a typical humanoid robot with less facial degrees of freedom, ``Robovie R2'', and a robot with a 3- axis rotatable neck and movable lips, ``Telenoid R2''). Analysis of subjective scores shows that the proposed model including head tilting and nodding can generate head motion with increased naturalness compared to nodding only and directly mapping people's original motions without gaze information. We also find that an upwards motion of a robot's face can be used by robots which do not have a mouth in order to provide the appearance that utterance is taking place. Finally, we conduct an experiment in which participants act as visitors to an information desk attended by robots. As a consequence, we verify that our generation model performs equally to directly mapping people's original motions with gaze information in terms of perceived naturalness.},
  Acknowledgement          = {This work was supported by JST CREST.},
  Day                      = {5-8},
  Doi                      = {10.1145/2157689.2157797},
  File                     = {Liu2012.pdf:Liu2012.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Keywords                 = {Head motion; dialogue acts; eye gazing; motion generation.},
  Reviewed                 = {Y}
}
Ryohei Kimura, Noriko Takemura, Yoshio Iwai, Kosuke Sato, "Extracting Interval Distribution of Human Interactions", Poster presentation at Pacific-Rim Symposium on Image and Video Technology (PSIVT), Gwangju, Korea, pp. 262-273, November, 2011.
BibTeX:
@INPROCEEDINGS{Kimura2011,
  author = {Ryohei Kimura and Noriko Takemura and Yoshio Iwai and Kosuke Sato},
  title = {Extracting Interval Distribution of Human Interactions},
  booktitle = {Pacific-Rim Symposium on Image and Video Technology (PSIVT)},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {262--273},
  address = {Gwangju, Korea},
  month = Nov,
  day = {1},
}
Martin Cooney, Takayuki Kanda, Aris Alissandrakis, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Interaction Design for an Enjoyable Play Interaction with a Small Humanoid Robot", In IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots (Humanoids), Bled, Slovenia, pp. 112-119, October, 2011.
Abstract: Robots designed to act as companions are expected to be able to interact with people in an enjoyable fashion. In particular, our aim is to enable small companion robots to respond in a pleasant way when people pick them up and play with them. To this end, we developed a gesture recognition system capable of recognizing play gestures which involve a person moving a small humanoid robot's full body ("full-body gestures"). However, such recognition by itself is not enough to provide a nice interaction. In fact, interactions with an initial, naive version of our system frequently fail. The question then becomes: what more is required? I.e., what sort of interaction design is required in order to create successful interactions? To answer this question, we analyze typical failures which occur and compile a list of guidelines. Then, we implement this model in our robot, proposing strategies for how a robot can provide ``reward'' and suggest goals for the interaction. As a consequence, we conduct a validation experiment. We find that our interaction design with ``persisting intentions'' can be used to establish an enjoyable play interaction.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Cooney2011,
  Title                    = {Interaction Design for an Enjoyable Play Interaction with a Small Humanoid Robot},
  Author                   = {Martin Cooney and Takayuki Kanda and Aris Alissandrakis and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Booktitle                = {{IEEE-RAS} International Conference on Humanoid Robots (Humanoids)},
  Year                     = {2011},

  Address                  = {Bled, Slovenia},
  Month                    = Oct,
  Pages                    = {112--119},

  Abstract                 = {Robots designed to act as companions are expected to be able to interact with people in an enjoyable fashion. In particular, our aim is to enable small companion robots to respond in a pleasant way when people pick them up and play with them. To this end, we developed a gesture recognition system capable of recognizing play gestures which involve a person moving a small humanoid robot's full body ("full-body gestures"). However, such recognition by itself is not enough to provide a nice interaction. In fact, interactions with an initial, naive version of our system frequently fail. The question then becomes: what more is required? I.e., what sort of interaction design is required in order to create successful interactions? To answer this question, we analyze typical failures which occur and compile a list of guidelines. Then, we implement this model in our robot, proposing strategies for how a robot can provide ``reward'' and suggest goals for the interaction. As a consequence, we conduct a validation experiment. We find that our interaction design with ``persisting intentions'' can be used to establish an enjoyable play interaction.},
  Acknowledgement          = {We'd like to thank everyone who helped with this project.},
  Day                      = {26-28},
  File                     = {Cooney2011.pdf:Cooney2011.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Keywords                 = {interaction design; enjoyment; playful human-robot interaction; small humanoid robot},
  Reviewed                 = {Y}
}
Carlos T. Ishi, Chaoran Liu, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Norihiro Hagita, "Speech-driven lip motion generation for tele-operated humanoid robots", In the International Conference on Audio-Visual Speech Processing 2011, Volterra, Italy, pp. 131-135, August, 2011.
Abstract: (such as android) from the utterances of the operator, we developed a speech-driven lip motion generation method. The proposed method is based on the rotation of the vowel space, given by the first and second formants, around the center vowel, and a mapping to the lip opening degrees. The method requires the calibration of only one parameter for speaker normalization, so that no other training of models is required. In a pilot experiment, the proposed audio-based method was perceived as more natural than vision-based approaches, regardless of the language.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Ishi2011a,
  Title                    = {Speech-driven lip motion generation for tele-operated humanoid robots},
  Author                   = {Carlos T. Ishi and Chaoran Liu and Hiroshi Ishiguro and Norihiro Hagita},
  Booktitle                = {the International Conference on Audio-Visual Speech Processing 2011},
  Year                     = {2011},

  Address                  = {Volterra, Italy},
  Month                    = Aug,
  Pages                    = {131-135},

  Abstract                 = {(such as android) from the utterances of the operator, we developed a speech-driven lip motion generation method. The proposed method is based on the rotation of the vowel space, given by the first and second formants, around the center vowel, and a mapping to the lip opening degrees. The method requires the calibration of only one parameter for speaker normalization, so that no other training of models is required. In a pilot experiment, the proposed audio-based method was perceived as more natural than vision-based approaches, regardless of the language.},
  Acknowledgement          = {This work was supported by JST/CREST. We thank Dr. Takashi Minato for advices on the motion control of the robots.},
  Day                      = {31-3},
  File                     = {Ishi2011a.pdf:pdf/Ishi2011a.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Keywords                 = {lip motion; formant; humanoid robot; tele-operation; synchronization},
  Reviewed                 = {Y}
}
Panikos Heracleous, Miki Sato, Carlos T. Ishi, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Norihiro Hagita, "Speech Production in Noisy Environments and the Effect on Automatic Speech Recognition", In International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Hong Kong, China, pp. 855-858, August, 2011.
Abstract: Speech is bimodal in nature and includes the audio and visual modalities. In addition to acoustic speech perception, speech can be also perceived using visual information provided by the mouth/face (i.e., automatic lipreading). In this study, the visual speech production in noisy environments is investigated. The authors show that the Lombard effect plays an important role not only in audio speech but also in visual speech production. Experimental results show that when visual speech is produced in noisy environments, the visual parameters of the mouth/face change. As a result, the performance of a visual speech recognizer decreases.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Heracleous2011e,
  Title                    = {Speech Production in Noisy Environments and the Effect on Automatic Speech Recognition},
  Author                   = {Panikos Heracleous and Miki Sato and Carlos T. Ishi and Hiroshi Ishiguro and Norihiro Hagita},
  Booktitle                = {International Congress of Phonetic Sciences},
  Year                     = {2011},

  Address                  = {Hong Kong, China},
  Month                    = Aug,
  Pages                    = {855--858},

  Abstract                 = {Speech is bimodal in nature and includes the audio and visual modalities. In addition to acoustic speech perception, speech can be also perceived using visual information provided by the mouth/face (i.e., automatic lipreading). In this study, the visual speech production in noisy environments is investigated. The authors show that the Lombard effect plays an important role not only in audio speech but also in visual speech production. Experimental results show that when visual speech is produced in noisy environments, the visual parameters of the mouth/face change. As a result, the performance of a visual speech recognizer decreases.},
  Acknowledgement          = {This work has been partially supported by {JST CREST} 'Studies on Cellphone-type Teleoperated Androids Transmitting Human Presence'.},
  Day                      = {18-21},
  File                     = {Heracleous2011e.pdf:Heracleous2011e.pdf:PDF;Heracleous.pdf:http\://www.icphs2011.hk/resources/OnlineProceedings/RegularSession/Heracleous/Heracleous.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Keywords                 = {speech; noisy environments; Lombard effect; lipreading},
  Reviewed                 = {Y}
}
Kohei Ogawa, Shuichi Nishio, Kensuke Koda, Koichi Taura, Takashi Minato, Carlos T. Ishi, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Telenoid: Tele-presence android for communication", In SIGGRAPH Emerging Technology, Vancouver, Canada, pp. 15, August, 2011.
Abstract: In this research, a new system of telecommunication called "Telenoid" is presented which focuses on the idea of transferring human's "presence". Telenoid was developed to appear and behave as a minimal design of human features. (Fig. 2(A)) A minimal human conveys the impression of human existence at first glance, but it doesn't suggest anything about personal features such as being male or female, old or young. Previously an android with more realistic features called Geminoid was proposed. However, because of its unique appearance, which is the copy of a model, it is too difficult to imagine other people's presence through Geminoid while they are operating it. On the other hand, Telenoid is designed as it holds an anonymous identity, which allows people to communicate with their acquaintances far away regardless of their gender and age. We expect that the Telenoid can be used as a medium that transfers human's presence by its minimal feature design.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Ogawa2011a,
  Title                    = {Telenoid: Tele-presence android for communication},
  Author                   = {Kohei Ogawa and Shuichi Nishio and Kensuke Koda and Koichi Taura and Takashi Minato and Carlos T. Ishi and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Booktitle                = {{SIGGRAPH} Emerging Technology},
  Year                     = {2011},

  Address                  = {Vancouver, Canada},
  Month                    = Aug,
  Pages                    = {15},

  Abstract                 = {In this research, a new system of telecommunication called "Telenoid" is presented which focuses on the idea of transferring human's "presence". Telenoid was developed to appear and behave as a minimal design of human features. (Fig. 2(A)) A minimal human conveys the impression of human existence at first glance, but it doesn't suggest anything about personal features such as being male or female, old or young. Previously an android with more realistic features called Geminoid was proposed. However, because of its unique appearance, which is the copy of a model, it is too difficult to imagine other people's presence through Geminoid while they are operating it. On the other hand, Telenoid is designed as it holds an anonymous identity, which allows people to communicate with their acquaintances far away regardless of their gender and age. We expect that the Telenoid can be used as a medium that transfers human's presence by its minimal feature design.},
  Acknowledgement          = {JST/CREST},
  Day                      = {7-11},
  Doi                      = {10.1145/2048259.2048274},
  File                     = {Ogawa2011a.pdf:Ogawa2011a.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Reviewed                 = {Y},
  Url                      = {http://dl.acm.org/authorize?6594082}
}
Ayaka Yamamoto, Yoshio Iwai, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Memory Based Human Region Detection", Poster presentation at IAPR Conference on Machine Vision Applications (MVA), Nara, Japan, June, 2011.
BibTeX:
@INPROCEEDINGS{Yamamoto2011,
  author = {Ayaka Yamamoto and Yoshio Iwai and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title = {Memory Based Human Region Detection},
  booktitle = {IAPR Conference on Machine Vision Applications (MVA)},
  year = {2011},
  address = {Nara, Japan},
  month = Jun,
  day = {1},
}
Panikos Heracleous, Norihiro Hagita, "Automatic Recognition of Speech without any audio information", In IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, Prague, Czech Republic, pp. 2392-2395, May, 2011.
Abstract: This article introduces automatic recognition of speech without any audio information. Movements of the tongue, lips, and jaw are tracked by an Electro-Magnetic Articulography (EMA) device and are used as features to create hidden Markov models (HMMs) and conduct automatic speech recognition in a conventional way. The results obtained are promising, which confirm that phonetic features characterizing articulation are as discriminating as those characterizing acoustics (except for voicing). The results also show that using tongue parameters result in a higher accuracy compared with the lip parameters.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Heracleous2011a,
  Title                    = {Automatic Recognition of Speech without any audio information},
  Author                   = {Panikos Heracleous and Norihiro Hagita},
  Booktitle                = {{IEEE} International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing},
  Year                     = {2011},

  Address                  = {Prague, Czech Republic},
  Month                    = May,
  Pages                    = {2392--2395},

  Abstract                 = {This article introduces automatic recognition of speech without any audio information. Movements of the tongue, lips, and jaw are tracked by an Electro-Magnetic Articulography ({EMA}) device and are used as features to create hidden Markov models ({HMM}s) and conduct automatic speech recognition in a conventional way. The results obtained are promising, which confirm that phonetic features characterizing articulation are as discriminating as those characterizing acoustics (except for voicing). The results also show that using tongue parameters result in a higher accuracy compared with the lip parameters.},
  Day                      = {22-27},
  Doi                      = {10.1109/ICASSP.2011.5946965},
  File                     = {Heracleous2011a.pdf:Heracleous2011a.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Reviewed                 = {Y},
  Url                      = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=5946965}
}
Hideyuki Nakanishi, Kei Kato, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Zoom Cameras and Movable Displays Enhance Social Telepresence", In ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2011), Vancouver, Canada, pp. 63-72, May, 2011.
Abstract: This paper shows that the augmentation of a remote person's positional movement enhances social telepresence. There are three possible ways of representing a remote person's movement toward the user in visual communication: a) the remote person's movement toward the remote camera, b) the remote camera's zooming in to enlarge the remote person's picture, and c) a forward movement of the display that is displaying the remote person. We conducted an experiment to see the relationship among these three ways and the effects of a remote camera's zooming and a display's movement on social telepresence. In the experiment, we observed that the remote person's movement lowered the reality of conversations, and the remote camera's zooming lowered the visual quality. However, social telepresence was enhanced when both the person's movement and the camera's zooming occurred simultaneously. We also observed that a 6-centimeter movement of the display enhanced social telepresence, whether the remote person moved or not.
BibTeX:
@INPROCEEDINGS{Nakanishi2011,
  author = {Hideyuki Nakanishi and Kei Kato and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title = {Zoom Cameras and Movable Displays Enhance Social Telepresence},
  booktitle = {ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems ({CHI} 2011)},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {63--72},
  address = {Vancouver, Canada},
  month = May,
  abstract = {This paper shows that the augmentation of a remote person's positional
	movement enhances social telepresence. There are three possible ways
	of representing a remote person's movement toward the user in visual
	communication: a) the remote person's movement toward the remote
	camera, b) the remote camera's zooming in to enlarge the remote person's
	picture, and c) a forward movement of the display that is displaying
	the remote person. We conducted an experiment to see the relationship
	among these three ways and the effects of a remote camera's zooming
	and a display's movement on social telepresence. In the experiment,
	we observed that the remote person's movement lowered the reality
	of conversations, and the remote camera's zooming lowered the visual
	quality. However, social telepresence was enhanced when both the
	person's movement and the camera's zooming occurred simultaneously.
	We also observed that a 6-centimeter movement of the display enhanced
	social telepresence, whether the remote person moved or not.},
  day = {7-12},
  file = {Nakanishi2011.pdf:Nakanishi2011.pdf:PDF},
  keywords = {Telepresence; videoconferencing; telerobotics},
  url = {http://delivery.acm.org/10.1145/1980000/1978953/p63-nakanishi.pdf?ip=133.186.34.130&acc=AUTHOR%2DIZED&CFID=69682909&CFTOKEN=36457336&__acm__=1331267804_9a7d8caad7c0a5fcb7a17f73854c560b}
}
Panikos Heracleous, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Norihiro Hagita, "Visual-speech to text conversion applicable to telephone communication for deaf individuals", In International Conference on Telecommunications, Ayia Napa, Cyprus, pp. 130-133, May, 2011.
Abstract: The access to communication technologies has become essential for the handicapped people. This study introduces the initial step of an automatic translation system able to translate visual speech used by deaf individuals to text, or auditory speech. A such a system would enable deaf users to communicate with each other and with normal-hearing people through telephone networks or through Internet by only using telephone devices equipped with simple cameras. In particular, this paper introduces automatic recognition and conversion to text of Cued Speech for French. Cued speech is a visual mode used for communication in the deaf society. Using hand shapes placed in different positions near the face as a complement to lipreading, all the sounds of a spoken language can be visually distinguished and perceived. Experimental results show high recognition rates for both isolated word and continuous phoneme recognition experiments in Cued Speech for French.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Heracleous2011f,
  Title                    = {Visual-speech to text conversion applicable to telephone communication for deaf individuals},
  Author                   = {Panikos Heracleous and Hiroshi Ishiguro and Norihiro Hagita},
  Booktitle                = {International Conference on Telecommunications},
  Year                     = {2011},

  Address                  = {Ayia Napa, Cyprus},
  Month                    = May,
  Pages                    = {130--133},

  Abstract                 = {The access to communication technologies has become essential for the handicapped people. This study introduces the initial step of an automatic translation system able to translate visual speech used by deaf individuals to text, or auditory speech. A such a system would enable deaf users to communicate with each other and with normal-hearing people through telephone networks or through Internet by only using telephone devices equipped with simple cameras. In particular, this paper introduces automatic recognition and conversion to text of Cued Speech for French. Cued speech is a visual mode used for communication in the deaf society. Using hand shapes placed in different positions near the face as a complement to lipreading, all the sounds of a spoken language can be visually distinguished and perceived. Experimental results show high recognition rates for both isolated word and continuous phoneme recognition experiments in Cued Speech for French.},
  Day                      = {8-11},
  Doi                      = {10.1109/CTS.2011.5898904},
  File                     = {Heracleous2011f.pdf:Heracleous2011f.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Reviewed                 = {Y},
  Url                      = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=5898904}
}
Panikos Heracleous, Miki Sato, Carlos Toshinori Ishi, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Norihiro Hagita, "The effect of environmental noise to automatic lip-reading", In Spring Meeting Acoustical Society of Japan, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 5-8, March, 2011.
Abstract: In automatic visual speech recognition, verbal messages can be interpreted by monitoring a talker's lip and facial movements using automated tools based on statistical methods (i.e., automatic visual speech recognition). Automatic visual speech recognition has applications in audiovisual speech recognition and in lip shape synthesis. This study investigates the automatic visual and audiovisual speech recognition in the presence of noise. The authors show that the Lombard effect plays an important role not only in audio, but also in automatic visual speech recognition. Experimental results of a multispeaker continuous phoneme recognition experiment show that the performance of a visual and an audiovisual speech recognition system further increases when the visual Lombard effect is also considered.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Heracleous2011c,
  Title                    = {The effect of environmental noise to automatic lip-reading},
  Author                   = {Panikos Heracleous and Miki Sato and Carlos Toshinori Ishi and Hiroshi Ishiguro and Norihiro Hagita},
  Booktitle                = {Spring Meeting Acoustical Society of Japan},
  Year                     = {2011},

  Address                  = {Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan},
  Month                    = Mar,
  Pages                    = {5--8},
  Series                   = {1-5-3},

  Abstract                 = {In automatic visual speech recognition, verbal messages can be interpreted by monitoring a talker's lip and facial movements using automated tools based on statistical methods (i.e., automatic visual speech recognition). Automatic visual speech recognition has applications in audiovisual speech recognition and in lip shape synthesis. This study investigates the automatic visual and audiovisual speech recognition in the presence of noise. The authors show that the Lombard effect plays an important role not only in audio, but also in automatic visual speech recognition. Experimental results of a multispeaker continuous phoneme recognition experiment show that the performance of a visual and an audiovisual speech recognition system further increases when the visual Lombard effect is also considered.},
  Acknowledgement          = {JST/CREST},
  File                     = {Heracleous2011c.pdf:Heracleous2011c.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Reviewed                 = {Y}
}
Non-Reviewed Conference Papers
劉超然, 石井カルロス寿憲, 石黒浩, 萩田紀博, "臨場感の伝わる遠隔操作システムのデザイン ~マイクロホンアレイ処理を用いた音環境の再構築~", In 第41回 人工知能学会 AIチャレンジ研究会, 慶應義塾大学日吉キャンパス 来住舎(東京), pp. 26-32, November, 2014.
Abstract: 本稿では遠隔地にあるロボットの周囲の音環境をマイクロフォンアレイ処理によって定位・分離し,ヴァーチャル位置にレンダリングするシステムを提案した。
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{劉超然2014,
  Title                    = {臨場感の伝わる遠隔操作システムのデザイン ~マイクロホンアレイ処理を用いた音環境の再構築~},
  Author                   = {劉超然 and 石井カルロス寿憲 and 石黒浩 and 萩田紀博},
  Booktitle                = {第41回 人工知能学会 AIチャレンジ研究会},
  Year                     = {2014},

  Address                  = {慶應義塾大学日吉キャンパス 来住舎(東京)},
  Month                    = Nov,
  Pages                    = {26-32},

  Abstract                 = {本稿では遠隔地にあるロボットの周囲の音環境をマイクロフォンアレイ処理によって定位・分離し,ヴァーチャル位置にレンダリングするシステムを提案した。},
  File                     = {劉超然2014.pdf:pdf/劉超然2014.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST;SCOPE},
  Yomi                     = {Chaoran Liu and Carlos T. Ishi and Hiroshi Ishiguro and Norihiro Hagita}
}
Ryuji Yamazaki, Marco Nørskov, "Self-alteration in HRI", Poster presentation at International Conference : Going Beyond the Laboratory - Ethical and Societal Challenges for Robotics, Hanse Wissenschaftskolleg (HWK) - Institute for Advanced Study, Delmenhorst, Germany, February, 2014.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Yamazaki2014,
  Title                    = {Self-alteration in HRI},
  Author                   = {Ryuji Yamazaki and Marco N\orskov},
  Booktitle                = {International Conference : Going Beyond the Laboratory - Ethical and Societal Challenges for Robotics},
  Year                     = {2014},

  Address                  = {Hanse Wissenschaftskolleg (HWK) - Institute for Advanced Study, Delmenhorst, Germany},
  Month                    = Feb,

  Category                 = {ポスター},
  Day                      = {13-15},
  File                     = {Yamazaki2014.pdf:pdf/Yamazaki2014.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST; 基盤B; SPIR; Velux},
  Language                 = {en}
}
Ryuji Yamazaki, Shuichi Nishio, Kaiko Kuwamura, "Identity Construction of the Hybrid of Robot and Human", In 22nd IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, Workshop on Enhancement/Training of Social Robotics Teleoperation and its Applications, Gyeongju, Korea, August, 2013.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Yamazaki2013,
  Title                    = {Identity Construction of the Hybrid of Robot and Human},
  Author                   = {Ryuji Yamazaki and Shuichi Nishio and Kaiko Kuwamura},
  Booktitle                = {22nd IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, Workshop on Enhancement/Training of Social Robotics Teleoperation and its Applications},
  Year                     = {2013},

  Address                  = {Gyeongju, Korea},
  Month                    = Aug,

  Day                      = {26-29},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Language                 = {en}
}
Yu Tsuruda, Maiya Hori, Hiroki Yoshimura, Yoshio Iwai, "Generation of Facial Expression Emphasized with Cartoon Techniques Using a Cellular-Phone-Type Teleoperated Robot with a Mobile Projector", In the 15th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (HCI 2013), Las Vegas, USA, pp. pp. 391-400, July, 2013.
Abstract: We propose a method for generating facial expressions emphasized with cartoon techniques using a cellular-phone-type teleoperated android with a mobile projector. Elfoid is designed to transmit the speaker’s presence to their communication partner using a camera and microphone, and has a soft exterior that provides the look and feel of human skin. To transmit the speaker’s presence, Elfoid sends not only the voice of the speaker but also emotional information captured by the camera and microphone. Elfoid cannot, however, display facial expressions because of its compactness and a lack of sufficiently small actuator motors. In this research, facial expressions are generated using Elfoid’s head-mounted mobile projector to overcome the problem. Additionally, facial expressions are emphasized using cartoon techniques: movements around the mouth and eyes are emphasized, the silhouette of the face and shapes of the eyes are varied by projection effects, and color stimuli that induce a particular emotion are added. In an experiment, representative face expressions are generated with Elfoid and emotions conveyed to users are investigated by subjective evaluation.
BibTeX:
@INPROCEEDINGS{Tsuruda2013a,
  author = {Yu Tsuruda and Maiya Hori and Hiroki Yoshimura and Yoshio Iwai},
  title = {Generation of Facial Expression Emphasized with Cartoon Techniques
	Using a Cellular-Phone-Type Teleoperated Robot with a Mobile Projector},
  booktitle = {the 15th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (HCI
	2013)},
  year = {2013},
  pages = {pp. 391-400},
  address = {Las Vegas, USA},
  month = Jul,
  abstract = {We propose a method for generating facial expressions emphasized with
	cartoon techniques using a cellular-phone-type teleoperated android
	with a mobile projector. Elfoid is designed to transmit the speaker’s
	presence to their communication partner using a camera and microphone,
	and has a soft exterior that provides the look and feel of human
	skin. To transmit the speaker’s presence, Elfoid sends not only the
	voice of the speaker but also emotional information captured by the
	camera and microphone. Elfoid cannot, however, display facial expressions
	because of its compactness and a lack of sufficiently small actuator
	motors. In this research, facial expressions are generated using
	Elfoid’s head-mounted mobile projector to overcome the problem. Additionally,
	facial expressions are emphasized using cartoon techniques: movements
	around the mouth and eyes are emphasized, the silhouette of the face
	and shapes of the eyes are varied by projection effects, and color
	stimuli that induce a particular emotion are added. In an experiment,
	representative face expressions are generated with Elfoid and emotions
	conveyed to users are investigated by subjective evaluation.},
  day = {21-26},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-39342-6_43},
  url = {http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-642-39342-6_43}
}
Yuya Wada, Kazuaki Tanaka, Hideyuki Nakanishi, "Strengthening Social Telepresence and Social Bonding by a Remote Handshake", Poster presentation at International Conference on Human Robot Interaction (HRI 2013) Demo Session, Miraikan, Tokyo, March, 2013.
BibTeX:
@INPROCEEDINGS{Wada2013,
  author = {Yuya Wada and Kazuaki Tanaka and Hideyuki Nakanishi},
  title = {Strengthening Social Telepresence and Social Bonding by a Remote
	Handshake},
  booktitle = {International Conference on Human Robot Interaction ({HRI} 2013)
	Demo Session},
  year = {2013},
  address = {Miraikan, Tokyo},
  month = Mar,
  day = {3-6},
}
Maiya Hori, Hideki Takakura, Hironori Yoshimura, Yoshio Iwai, "Generation of Facial Expression for Communication Using Elfoid with Projector", In the International Workshop on Multimodal Pattern Recognition of Social Signals in Human Computer Interaction (MPRSS 2012), Tsukuba, Japan, November, 2012.
BibTeX:
@INPROCEEDINGS{Hori2012,
  author = {Maiya Hori and Hideki Takakura and Hironori Yoshimura and Yoshio
	Iwai},
  title = {Generation of Facial Expression for Communication Using Elfoid with
	Projector},
  booktitle = {the International Workshop on Multimodal Pattern Recognition of Social
	Signals in Human Computer Interaction (MPRSS 2012)},
  year = {2012},
  address = {Tsukuba, Japan},
  month = Nov,
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-39342-6_43},
  url = {http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-642-39342-6_43}
}
Yuhei Fujie, Maiya Hori, Hiroki Yoshimura, Yoshio Iwai, "Emotion Transmission Using a Cellular-phone-type Teleoperated Communication Robot with a Light-Emitting Diode", In the 2012 International Workshop on Human-Agent Interaction (iHAI 2012), 2012.
BibTeX:
@INPROCEEDINGS{Fujie2012,
  author = {Yuhei Fujie and Maiya Hori and Hiroki Yoshimura and Yoshio Iwai},
  title = {Emotion Transmission Using a Cellular-phone-type Teleoperated Communication
	Robot with a Light-Emitting Diode},
  booktitle = {the 2012 International Workshop on Human-Agent Interaction (i{HAI}
	2012)},
  year = {2012},
}
Carlos T. Ishi, Chaoran Liu, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Norihiro Hagita, "Tele-operating the lip motion of humanoid robots from the operator’s voice", In 第29回日本ロボット学会学術講演会, 芝浦工業大学豊洲キャンパス, 東京, pp. C1J3-6, September, 2011.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Ishi2011,
  Title                    = {Tele-operating the lip motion of humanoid robots from the operator’s voice},
  Author                   = {Carlos T. Ishi and Chaoran Liu and Hiroshi Ishiguro and Norihiro Hagita},
  Booktitle                = {第29回日本ロボット学会学術講演会},
  Year                     = {2011},

  Address                  = {芝浦工業大学豊洲キャンパス, 東京},
  Month                    = Sep,
  Pages                    = {C1J3-6},

  Acknowledgement          = {This work was supported by JST/CREST.},
  Day                      = {7-9},
  File                     = {Ishi2011.pdf:pdf/Ishi2011.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST}
}
Panikos Heracleous, Norihiro Hagita, "A visual mode for communication in the deaf society", In Spring Meeting of Acoustical Society of Japan, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 57-60, March, 2011.
Abstract: In this article, automatic recognition of Cued Speech in French based on hidden Markov models (HMMs) is presented. Cued Speech is a visual mode, which uses hand shapes in different positions and in combination with lip-patterns of speech makes all the sounds of spoken language clearly understandable to deaf and hearing-impaired people. The aim of Cued Speech is to overcome the problems of lip-reading and thus enable deaf children and adults to understand full spoken language. In this study, lip shape component is fused with hand component using multi-stream HMM decision fusion to realize Cued Speech recognition, and continuous phoneme recognition experiments using data from a normal-hearing and a deaf cuer were conducted. In the case of the normal-hearing cuer, the obtained phoneme correct was 87.3%, and in the case of the deaf cuer 84.3%. The current study also includes the description of Cued Speech in Japanese.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Heracleous2011d,
  Title                    = {A visual mode for communication in the deaf society},
  Author                   = {Panikos Heracleous and Norihiro Hagita},
  Booktitle                = {Spring Meeting of Acoustical Society of Japan},
  Year                     = {2011},

  Address                  = {Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan},
  Month                    = Mar,
  Pages                    = {57--60},
  Series                   = {2-5-6},

  Abstract                 = {In this article, automatic recognition of Cued Speech in French based on hidden Markov models ({HMM}s) is presented. Cued Speech is a visual mode, which uses hand shapes in different positions and in combination with lip-patterns of speech makes all the sounds of spoken language clearly understandable to deaf and hearing-impaired people. The aim of Cued Speech is to overcome the problems of lip-reading and thus enable deaf children and adults to understand full spoken language. In this study, lip shape component is fused with hand component using multi-stream HMM decision fusion to realize Cued Speech recognition, and continuous phoneme recognition experiments using data from a normal-hearing and a deaf cuer were conducted. In the case of the normal-hearing cuer, the obtained phoneme correct was 87.3%, and in the case of the deaf cuer 84.3%. The current study also includes the description of Cued Speech in Japanese.},
  Acknowledgement          = {{JST/CREST}},
  File                     = {Heracleous2011d.pdf:Heracleous2011d.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST}
}

Contact: hil-contact@atr.jp