Books
Shuichi Nishio, Hideyuki Nakanishi, Tsumomu Fujinami, "Investigating Human Nature and Communication through Robots", Frontiers Media, January, 2017.
Abstract: The development of information technology enabled us to exchange more items of information among us no matter how far we are apart from each other. It also changed our way of communication. Various types of robots recently promoted to be sold to general public hint that these robots may further influence our daily life as they physically interact with us and handle objects in environment. We may even recognize a feel of presence similar to that of human beings when we talk to a robot or when a robot takes part in our conversation. The impact will be strong enough for us to think about the meaning of communication. This e-book consists of various studies that examine our communication influenced by robots. Topics include our attitudes toward robot behaviors, designing robots for better communicating with people, and how people can be affected by communicating through robots.
BibTeX:
@Book{Nishio2017,
  title =     {Investigating Human Nature and Communication through Robots},
  publisher = {Frontiers Media},
  year =      {2017},
  editor =    {Shuichi Nishio and Hideyuki Nakanishi and Tsumomu Fujinami},
  month =     Jan,
  abstract =  {The development of information technology enabled us to exchange more items of information among us no matter how far we are apart from each other. It also changed our way of communication. Various types of robots recently promoted to be sold to general public hint that these robots may further influence our daily life as they physically interact with us and handle objects in environment. We may even recognize a feel of presence similar to that of human beings when we talk to a robot or when a robot takes part in our conversation. The impact will be strong enough for us to think about the meaning of communication. This e-book consists of various studies that examine our communication influenced by robots. Topics include our attitudes toward robot behaviors, designing robots for better communicating with people, and how people can be affected by communicating through robots.},
  file =      {Nishio2017.pdf:pdf/Nishio2017.pdf:PDF},
  isbn =      {9782889450862},
  url =       {http://www.frontiersin.org/books/Investigating_Human_Nature_and_Communication_through_Robots/1098}
}
Book Chapters
Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Norihiro Hagita, "Geminoid: Teleoperated Android of an Existing Person", Chapter in Humanoid Robots: New Developments, I-Tech Education and Publishing, Vienna, Austria, pp. 343-352, June, 2007.
BibTeX:
@InCollection{Nishio2007a,
  author =          {Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro and Norihiro Hagita},
  title =           {Geminoid: Teleoperated Android of an Existing Person},
  booktitle =       {Humanoid Robots: New Developments},
  publisher =       {I-Tech Education and Publishing},
  year =            {2007},
  editor =          {Armando Carlos de Pina Filho},
  pages =           {343--352},
  address =         {Vienna, Austria},
  month =           Jun,
  file =            {Nishio2007a.pdf:Nishio2007a.pdf:PDF;InTech-Geminoid_teleoperated_android_of_an_existing_person.pdf:http\://www.intechopen.com/source/pdfs/240/InTech-Geminoid_teleoperated_android_of_an_existing_person.pdf:PDF},
  url =             {http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/geminoid__teleoperated_android_of_an_existing_person}
}
Overviews
Shuichi Nishio, Takashi Minato, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Using Androids to Provide Communication Support for the Elderly", New Breeze, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 14-17, October, 2015.
BibTeX:
@Article{Nishio2015c,
  author =   {Shuichi Nishio and Takashi Minato and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =    {Using Androids to Provide Communication Support for the Elderly},
  journal =  {New Breeze},
  year =     {2015},
  volume =   {27},
  number =   {4},
  pages =    {14-17},
  month =    Oct,
  day =      {9},
  file =     {Nishio2015c.pdf:pdf/Nishio2015c.pdf:PDF},
  url =      {https://www.ituaj.jp/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/nb27-4_web_05_ROBOTS_usingandroids.pdf}
}
Kohei Ogawa, Shuichi Nishio, Takashi Minato, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Android Robots as Tele-presence Media", Biomedical Engineering and Cognitive Neuroscience for Healthcare: Interdisciplinary Applications, Medical Information Science Reference, Pennsylvania, USA, pp. 54-63, September, 2012.
Abstract: In this chapter, the authors describe two human-like android robots, known as Geminoid and Telenoid, which they have developed. Geminoid was developed for two reasons: (1) to explore how humans react or respond the android during face-to-face communication and (2) to investigate the advantages of the android as a communication medium compared to traditional communication media, such as the telephone or the television conference system. The authors conducted two experiments: the first was targeted to an interlocutor of Geminoid, and the second was targeted to an operator of it. The results of these experiments showed that Geminoid could emulate a human's presence in a natural-conversation situation. Additionally, Geminoid could be as persuasive to the interlocutor as a human. The operators of Geminoid were also influenced by the android: during operation, they felt as if their bodies were one and the same with the Geminoid body. The latest challenge has been to develop Telenoid, an android with a more abstract appearance than Geminoid, which looks and behaves as a minimalistic human. At first glance, Telenoid resembles a human; however, its appearance can be interpreted as any sex or any age. Two field experiments were conducted with Telenoid. The results of these experiments showed that Telenoid could be an acceptable communication medium for both young and elderly people. In particular, physical interaction, such as a hug, positively affected the experience of communicating with Telenoid.
BibTeX:
@Article{Ogawa2012b,
  author =    {Kohei Ogawa and Shuichi Nishio and Takashi Minato and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =     {Android Robots as Tele-presence Media},
  journal =   {Biomedical Engineering and Cognitive Neuroscience for Healthcare: Interdisciplinary Applications},
  year =      {2012},
  pages =     {54-63},
  month =     Sep,
  abstract =  {In this chapter, the authors describe two human-like android robots, known as Geminoid and Telenoid, which they have developed. Geminoid was developed for two reasons: (1) to explore how humans react or respond the android during face-to-face communication and (2) to investigate the advantages of the android as a communication medium compared to traditional communication media, such as the telephone or the television conference system. The authors conducted two experiments: the first was targeted to an interlocutor of Geminoid, and the second was targeted to an operator of it. The results of these experiments showed that Geminoid could emulate a human's presence in a natural-conversation situation. Additionally, Geminoid could be as persuasive to the interlocutor as a human. The operators of Geminoid were also influenced by the android: during operation, they felt as if their bodies were one and the same with the Geminoid body. The latest challenge has been to develop Telenoid, an android with a more abstract appearance than Geminoid, which looks and behaves as a minimalistic human. At first glance, Telenoid resembles a human; however, its appearance can be interpreted as any sex or any age. Two field experiments were conducted with Telenoid. The results of these experiments showed that Telenoid could be an acceptable communication medium for both young and elderly people. In particular, physical interaction, such as a hug, positively affected the experience of communicating with Telenoid.},
  address =   {Pennsylvania, USA},
  chapter =   {6},
  doi =       {10.4018/978-1-4666-2113-8.ch006},
  editor =    {Jinglong Wu},
  file =      {Ogawa2012b.pdf:Ogawa2012b.pdf:PDF},
  isbn =      {9781466621138},
  publisher = {Medical Information Science Reference},
  url =       {http://www.igi-global.com/chapter/android-robots-telepresence-media/69905}
}
Invited Talks
Shuichi Nishio, "Portable android robot "Telenoid" for aged citizens: overview and results in Japan and Denmark", In 2016 MOST&JST Workshop on ICT for Accessibility and Support of Older People, Tainan, Taiwan, April, 2016.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Nishio2016,
  author =    {Shuichi Nishio},
  title =     {Portable android robot "Telenoid" for aged citizens: overview and results in Japan and Denmark},
  booktitle = {2016 MOST\&JST Workshop on ICT for Accessibility and Support of Older People},
  year =      {2016},
  address =   {Tainan, Taiwan},
  month =     Apr,
  day =       {11},
}
Shuichi Nishio, "Teleoperated android robots - Fundamentals, applications and future", In China International Advanced Manufacturing Conference 2014, Mianyang, China, October, 2014.
Abstract: I will introduce our various experiences on teleoperated android robots, how their are manufactured, scientific findings, applications to real world issues and how they will be used in our society in future.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Nishio2014a,
  Title                    = {Teleoperated android robots - Fundamentals, applications and future},
  Author                   = {Shuichi Nishio},
  Booktitle                = {China International Advanced Manufacturing Conference 2014},
  Year                     = {2014},

  Address                  = {Mianyang, China},
  Month                    = Oct,

  Abstract                 = {I will introduce our various experiences on teleoperated android robots, how their are manufactured, scientific findings, applications to real world issues and how they will be used in our society in future.},
  Category                 = {招待講演},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Language                 = {en}
}
Shuichi Nishio, "The Impact of the Care‐Robot ‘Telenoid' on Elderly Persons in Japan", In International Conference : Going Beyond the Laboratory - Ethical and Societal Challenges for Robotics, Delmenhorst, Germany, February, 2014.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Nishio2014,
  author =    {Shuichi Nishio},
  title =     {The Impact of the Care‐Robot ‘Telenoid' on Elderly Persons in Japan},
  booktitle = {International Conference : Going Beyond the Laboratory - Ethical and Societal Challenges for Robotics},
  year =      {2014},
  address =   {Delmenhorst, Germany},
  month =     Feb,
  day =       {13-15},
}
Mari Velonaki, David C. Rye, Steve Scheding, Karl F. MacDorman, Stephen J. Cowley, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Shuichi Nishio, "Panel Discussion: Engagement, Trust and Intimacy: Are these the Essential Elements for a Successful Interaction between a Human and a Robot?", In AAAI Spring Symposium on Emotion, Personality, and Social Behavior, California, USA, pp. 141-147, March, 2008. (2008.3.26)
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Nishio2008b,
  Title                    = {Panel Discussion: Engagement, Trust and Intimacy: Are these the Essential Elements for a Successful Interaction between a Human and a Robot?},
  Author                   = {Mari Velonaki and David C. Rye and Steve Scheding and Karl F. MacDorman and Stephen J. Cowley and Hiroshi Ishiguro and Shuichi Nishio},
  Booktitle                = {{AAAI} Spring Symposium on Emotion, Personality, and Social Behavior},
  Year                     = {2008},

  Address                  = {California, USA},
  Month                    = Mar,
  Note                     = {2008.3.26},
  Pages                    = {141-147},

  Category                 = {招待講演},
  File                     = {Rye_Panel.pdf:http\://psychometrixassociates.com/Rye_Panel.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {ATR},
  Url                      = {http://www.aaai.org/Library/Symposia/Spring/2008/ss08-04-022.php}
}
Journal Papers
Jakub Zlotowski, Hidenobu Sumioka, Shuichi Nishio, Dylan F. Glas, Christoph Bartneck, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Appearance of a Robot Affects the Impact of its Behaviour on Perceived Trustworthiness and Empathy", Paladyn, Journal of Behavioral Robotics, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 55-66, December, 2016.
Abstract: An increasing number of companion robots started reaching the public in the recent years. These robots vary in their appearance and behavior. Since these two factors can have an impact on lasting human-robot relationships, it is important to understand their effect for companion robots. We have conducted an experiment that evaluated the impact of a robot's appearance and its behaviour in repeated interactions on its perceived empathy, trustworthiness and anxiety experienced by a human. The results indicate that a highly humanlike robot is perceived as less trustworthy and empathic than a more machinelike robot. Moreover, negative behaviour of a machinelike robot reduces its trustworthiness and perceived empathy stronger than for highly humanlike robot. In addition, we found that a robot which disapproves of what a human says can induce anxiety felt towards its communication capabilities. Our findings suggest that more machinelike robots can be more suitable as companions than highly humanlike robots. Moreover, a robot disagreeing with a human interaction partner should be able to provide feedback on its understanding of the partner's message in order to reduce her anxiety.
BibTeX:
@Article{Zlotowski2016a,
  author =   {Jakub Zlotowski and Hidenobu Sumioka and Shuichi Nishio and Dylan F. Glas and Christoph Bartneck and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =    {Appearance of a Robot Affects the Impact of its Behaviour on Perceived Trustworthiness and Empathy},
  journal =  {Paladyn, Journal of Behavioral Robotics},
  year =     {2016},
  volume =   {7},
  number =   {1},
  pages =    {55-66},
  month =    Dec,
  abstract = {An increasing number of companion robots started reaching the public in the recent years. These robots vary in their appearance and behavior. Since these two factors can have an impact on lasting human-robot relationships, it is important to understand their effect for companion robots. We have conducted an experiment that evaluated the impact of a robot's appearance and its behaviour in repeated interactions on its perceived empathy, trustworthiness and anxiety experienced by a human. The results indicate that a highly humanlike robot is perceived as less trustworthy and empathic than a more machinelike robot. Moreover, negative behaviour of a machinelike robot reduces its trustworthiness and perceived empathy stronger than for highly humanlike robot. In addition, we found that a robot which disapproves of what a human says can induce anxiety felt towards its communication capabilities. Our findings suggest that more machinelike robots can be more suitable as companions than highly humanlike robots. Moreover, a robot disagreeing with a human interaction partner should be able to provide feedback on its understanding of the partner's message in order to reduce her anxiety.},
  file =     {Zlotowski2016a.pdf:pdf/Zlotowski2016a.pdf:PDF},
  url =      {https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/pjbr.2016.7.issue-1/pjbr-2016-0005/pjbr-2016-0005.xml}
}
Maryam Alimardani, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Removal of proprioception by BCI raises a stronger body ownership illusion in control of a humanlike robot", Scientific Reports, vol. 6, no. 33514, September, 2016.
Abstract: Body ownership illusions provide evidence that our sense of self is not coherent and can be extended to non-body objects. Studying about these illusions gives us practical tools to understand the brain mechanisms that underlie body recognition and the experience of self. We previously introduced an illusion of body ownership transfer (BOT) for operators of a very humanlike robot. This sensation of owning the robot's body was confirmed when operators controlled the robot either by performing the desired motion with their body (motion-control) or by employing a brain-computer interface (BCI) that translated motor imagery commands to robot movement (BCI-control). The interesting observation during BCI-control was that the illusion could be induced even with a noticeable delay in the BCI system. Temporal discrepancy has always shown critical weakening effects on body ownership illusions. However the delay-robustness of BOT during BCI-control raised a question about the interaction between the proprioceptive inputs and delayed visual feedback in agency-driven illusions. In this work, we compared the intensity of BOT illusion for operators in two conditions; motion-control and BCI-control. Our results revealed a significantly stronger BOT illusion for the case of BCI-control. This finding highlights BCI's potential in inducing stronger agency-driven illusions by building a direct communication between the brain and controlled body, and therefore removing awareness from the subject's own body.
BibTeX:
@Article{Alimardani2016,
  author =          {Maryam Alimardani and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =           {Removal of proprioception by BCI raises a stronger body ownership illusion in control of a humanlike robot},
  journal =         {Scientific Reports},
  year =            {2016},
  volume =          {6},
  number =          {33514},
  month =           Sep,
  abstract =        {Body ownership illusions provide evidence that our sense of self is not coherent and can be extended to non-body objects. Studying about these illusions gives us practical tools to understand the brain mechanisms that underlie body recognition and the experience of self. We previously introduced an illusion of body ownership transfer (BOT) for operators of a very humanlike robot. This sensation of owning the robot's body was confirmed when operators controlled the robot either by performing the desired motion with their body (motion-control) or by employing a brain-computer interface (BCI) that translated motor imagery commands to robot movement (BCI-control). The interesting observation during BCI-control was that the illusion could be induced even with a noticeable delay in the BCI system. Temporal discrepancy has always shown critical weakening effects on body ownership illusions. However the delay-robustness of BOT during BCI-control raised a question about the interaction between the proprioceptive inputs and delayed visual feedback in agency-driven illusions. In this work, we compared the intensity of BOT illusion for operators in two conditions; motion-control and BCI-control. Our results revealed a significantly stronger BOT illusion for the case of BCI-control. This finding highlights BCI's potential in inducing stronger agency-driven illusions by building a direct communication between the brain and controlled body, and therefore removing awareness from the subject's own body.},
  doi =             {10.1038/srep33514},
  file =            {Alimardani2016.pdf:pdf/Alimardani2016.pdf:PDF},
  url =             {http://www.nature.com/articles/srep33514}
}
Maryam Alimardani, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "The Importance of Visual Feedback Design in BCIs; from Embodiment to Motor Imagery Learning", PLOS ONE, pp. 1-17, September, 2016.
Abstract: Brain computer interfaces (BCIs) have been developed and implemented in many areas as a new communication channel between the human brain and external devices. Despite their rapid growth and broad popularity, the inaccurate performance and cost of user-training are yet the main issues that prevent their application out of the research and clinical environment. We previously introduced a BCI system for the control of a very humanlike android that could raise a sense of embodiment and agency in the operators only by imagining a movement (motor imagery) and watching the robot perform it. Also using the same setup, we further discovered that the positive bias of subjects' performance both increased their sensation of embodiment and improved their motor imagery skills in a short period. In this work, we studied the shared mechanism between the experience of embodiment and motor imagery. We compared the trend of motor imagery learning when two groups of subjects BCI-operated different looking robots, a very humanlike android's hands and a pair of metallic gripper. Although our experiments did not show a significant change of learning between the two groups immediately during one session, the android group revealed better motor imagery skills in the follow up session when both groups repeated the task using the non-humanlike gripper. This result shows that motor imagery skills learnt during the BCI-operation of humanlike hands are more robust to time and visual feedback changes. We discuss the role of embodiment and mirror neuron system in such outcome and propose the application of androids for efficient BCI training.
BibTeX:
@Article{Alimardani2016a,
  author =          {Maryam Alimardani and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =           {The Importance of Visual Feedback Design in BCIs; from Embodiment to Motor Imagery Learning},
  journal =         {PLOS ONE},
  year =            {2016},
  pages =           {1-17},
  month =           Sep,
  abstract =        {Brain computer interfaces (BCIs) have been developed and implemented in many areas as a new communication channel between the human brain and external devices. Despite their rapid growth and broad popularity, the inaccurate performance and cost of user-training are yet the main issues that prevent their application out of the research and clinical environment. We previously introduced a BCI system for the control of a very humanlike android that could raise a sense of embodiment and agency in the operators only by imagining a movement (motor imagery) and watching the robot perform it. Also using the same setup, we further discovered that the positive bias of subjects' performance both increased their sensation of embodiment and improved their motor imagery skills in a short period. In this work, we studied the shared mechanism between the experience of embodiment and motor imagery. We compared the trend of motor imagery learning when two groups of subjects BCI-operated different looking robots, a very humanlike android's hands and a pair of metallic gripper. Although our experiments did not show a significant change of learning between the two groups immediately during one session, the android group revealed better motor imagery skills in the follow up session when both groups repeated the task using the non-humanlike gripper. This result shows that motor imagery skills learnt during the BCI-operation of humanlike hands are more robust to time and visual feedback changes. We discuss the role of embodiment and mirror neuron system in such outcome and propose the application of androids for efficient BCI training.},
  day =             {6},
  doi =             {10.1371/journal.pone.0161945},
  file =            {Alimardani2016a.pdf:pdf/Alimardani2016a.pdf:PDF},
  url =             {http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0161945}
}
Kaiko Kuwamura, Shuichi Nishio, Shinichi Sato, "Can We Talk through a Robot As if Face-to-Face? Long-Term Fieldwork Using Teleoperated Robot for Seniors with Alzheimer's Disease", Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 7, no. 1066, pp. 1-13, July, 2016.
Abstract: This work presents a case study on fieldwork in a group home for the elderly with dementia using a teleoperated robot called Telenoid. We compared Telenoid-mediated and face-to-face conditions with three residents with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The result indicates that two of the three residents with moderate AD showed a positive reaction to Telenoid. Both became less nervous while communicating with Telenoid from the time they were first introduced to it. Moreover, they started to use more body gestures in the face-to-face condition and more physical interactions in the Telenoid-mediated condition. In this work, we present all the results and discuss the possibilities of using Telenoid as a tool to provide opportunities for seniors to communicate over the long term.
BibTeX:
@Article{Kuwamura2016a,
  author =          {Kaiko Kuwamura and Shuichi Nishio and Shinichi Sato},
  title =           {Can We Talk through a Robot As if Face-to-Face? Long-Term Fieldwork Using Teleoperated Robot for Seniors with Alzheimer's Disease},
  journal =         {Frontiers in Psychology},
  year =            {2016},
  volume =          {7},
  number =          {1066},
  pages =           {1-13},
  month =           Jul,
  abstract =        {This work presents a case study on fieldwork in a group home for the elderly with dementia using a teleoperated robot called Telenoid. We compared Telenoid-mediated and face-to-face conditions with three residents with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The result indicates that two of the three residents with moderate AD showed a positive reaction to Telenoid. Both became less nervous while communicating with Telenoid from the time they were first introduced to it. Moreover, they started to use more body gestures in the face-to-face condition and more physical interactions in the Telenoid-mediated condition. In this work, we present all the results and discuss the possibilities of using Telenoid as a tool to provide opportunities for seniors to communicate over the long term.},
  day =             {19},
  doi =             {10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01066},
  file =            {Kuwamura2016a.pdf:pdf/Kuwamura2016a.pdf:PDF},
  keywords =        {Elderly care robot, Teleoperated robot, Alzheimer's disease, Elderly care facility, Gerontology},
  url =             {http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01066}
}
Ryuji Yamazaki, Louise Christensen, Kate Skov, Chi-Chih Chang, Malene F. Damholdt, Hidenobu Sumioka, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Intimacy in Phone Conversations: Anxiety Reduction for Danish Seniors with Hugvie", Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 7, no. 537, April, 2016.
Abstract: There is a lack of physical contact in current telecommunications such as text messaging and Internet access. To challenge the limitation and re-embody telecommunication, researchers have attempted to introduce tactile stimulation to media and developed huggable devices. Previous experiments in Japan showed that a huggable communication technology, i.e., Hugvie decreased stress level of its female users. In the present experiment in Denmark, we aim to investigate (i) whether Hugvie can decrease stress cross-culturally, i.e., Japanese vs. Danish participants (ii), investigate whether gender plays a role in this psychological effect (stress reduction) and (iii) if there is a preference of this type of communication technology (Hugvie vs. a regular telephone). Twenty-nine healthy elderly participated (15 female and 14 male, M = 64.52 years, SD = 5.67) in Jutland, Denmark. The participants filled out questionnaires including State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and Becks Depression Inventory, had a 15 min conversation via phone or Hugvie and were interviewed afterward. They spoke with an unknown person of opposite gender during the conversation; the same two conversation partners were used during the experiment and the Phone and Hugvie groups were equally balanced. There was no baseline difference between the Hugvie and Phone groups on age or anxiety or depression scores. In the Hugvie group, there was a statistically significant reduction on state anxiety after meeting Hugvie (p = 0.013). The change in state anxiety for the Hugvie group was positively correlated with openness (r = 0.532, p = 0.041) as measured by the NEO-FFI. This indicates that openness to experiences may increase the chances of having an anxiety reduction from being with Hugvie. Based on the results, we see that personality may affect the participants' engagement and benefits from Hugvie. We discuss the implications of the results and further elaborations.
BibTeX:
@Article{Yamazaki2016,
  author =   {Ryuji Yamazaki and Louise Christensen and Kate Skov and Chi-Chih Chang and Malene F. Damholdt and Hidenobu Sumioka and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =    {Intimacy in Phone Conversations: Anxiety Reduction for Danish Seniors with Hugvie},
  journal =  {Frontiers in Psychology},
  year =     {2016},
  volume =   {7},
  number =   {537},
  month =    Apr,
  abstract = {There is a lack of physical contact in current telecommunications such as text messaging and Internet access. To challenge the limitation and re-embody telecommunication, researchers have attempted to introduce tactile stimulation to media and developed huggable devices. Previous experiments in Japan showed that a huggable communication technology, i.e., Hugvie decreased stress level of its female users. In the present experiment in Denmark, we aim to investigate (i) whether Hugvie can decrease stress cross-culturally, i.e., Japanese vs. Danish participants (ii), investigate whether gender plays a role in this psychological effect (stress reduction) and (iii) if there is a preference of this type of communication technology (Hugvie vs. a regular telephone). Twenty-nine healthy elderly participated (15 female and 14 male, M = 64.52 years, SD = 5.67) in Jutland, Denmark. The participants filled out questionnaires including State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and Becks Depression Inventory, had a 15 min conversation via phone or Hugvie and were interviewed afterward. They spoke with an unknown person of opposite gender during the conversation; the same two conversation partners were used during the experiment and the Phone and Hugvie groups were equally balanced. There was no baseline difference between the Hugvie and Phone groups on age or anxiety or depression scores. In the Hugvie group, there was a statistically significant reduction on state anxiety after meeting Hugvie (p = 0.013). The change in state anxiety for the Hugvie group was positively correlated with openness (r = 0.532, p = 0.041) as measured by the NEO-FFI. This indicates that openness to experiences may increase the chances of having an anxiety reduction from being with Hugvie. Based on the results, we see that personality may affect the participants' engagement and benefits from Hugvie. We discuss the implications of the results and further elaborations.},
  doi =      {10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00537},
  file =     {Yamazaki2016.pdf:pdf/Yamazaki2016.pdf:PDF},
  url =      {http://journal.frontiersin.org/researchtopic/investigating-human-nature-and-communication-through-robots-3705}
}
Kaiko Kuwamura, Takashi Minato, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Inconsistency of Personality Evaluation Caused by Appearance Gap in Robotic Telecommunication", Interaction Studies, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 249-271, November, 2015.
Abstract: In this paper, we discuss the problem of the appearance of teleoperated robots that are used as telecommunication media. Teleoperated robots have a physical existence that increases the feeling of copresence, compared with recent communication media such as cellphones and video chat. However, their appearance is xed, for example stuffed bear, or a image displayed on a monitor. Since people can determine their partner's personality merely from their appearance, a teleoperated robot's appearance which is different from the operator might construct a personality that conflicts with the operator's original personality. We compared the appearances of three communication media (nonhuman-like appearance robot, human-like appearance robot, and video chat) and found that due to the appearance gap, the human-like appearance robot prevented confusion better than the nonhuman-like appearance robot or the video chat and also transmitted an appropriate atmosphere due to the operator.
BibTeX:
@Article{Kuwamura2013a,
  Title                    = {Inconsistency of Personality Evaluation Caused by Appearance Gap in Robotic Telecommunication},
  Author                   = {Kaiko Kuwamura and Takashi Minato and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Journal                  = {Interaction Studies},
  Year                     = {2015},

  Month                    = NOV,
  Number                   = {2},
  Pages                    = {249-271},
  Volume                   = {16},

  Abstract                 = {In this paper, we discuss the problem of the appearance of teleoperated robots that are used as telecommunication media. Teleoperated robots have a physical existence that increases the feeling of copresence, compared with recent communication media such as cellphones and video chat. However, their appearance is xed, for example stuffed bear, or a image displayed on a monitor. Since people can determine their partner's personality merely from their appearance, a teleoperated robot's appearance which is different from the operator might construct a personality that conflicts with the operator's original personality. We compared the appearances of three communication media (nonhuman-like appearance robot, human-like appearance robot, and video chat) and found that due to the appearance gap, the human-like appearance robot prevented confusion better than the nonhuman-like appearance robot or the video chat and also transmitted an appropriate atmosphere due to the operator.},
  Acknowledgement          = {This research was supported by JST, CREST.},
  File                     = {Kuwamura2013a.pdf:pdf/Kuwamura2013a.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Keywords                 = {teleoperated android; telecomunication; robot; appearance; personality},
  Language                 = {en},
  Reviewed                 = {Y}
}
Jakub Zlotowski, Hidenobu Sumioka, Shuichi Nishio, Dylan Glas, Christoph Bartneck, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Persistence of the Uncanny Valley: the Influence of Repeated Interactions and a Robot's Attitude on Its Perception", Frontiers in Psychology, June, 2015.
Abstract: The uncanny valley theory proposed by Mori has been heavily investigated in the recent years by researchers from various fields. However, the videos and images used in these studies did not permit any human interaction with the uncanny objects. Therefore, in the field of human-robot interaction it is still unclear what and whether an uncanny looking robot will have an impact on an interaction. In this paper we describe an exploratory empirical study that involved repeated interactions with robots that differed in embodiment and their attitude towards a human. We found that both investigated components of the uncanniness (likeability and eeriness) can be affected by an interaction with a robot. Likeability of a robot was mainly affected by its attitude and this effect was especially prominent for a machine-like robot. On the other hand, mere repeated interactions was sufficient to reduce eeriness irrespective of a robot's embodiment. As a result we urge other researchers to investigate Mori's theory in studies that involve actual human-robot interaction in order to fully understand the changing nature of this phenomenon.
BibTeX:
@Article{Zlotowski,
  Title                    = {Persistence of the Uncanny Valley: the Influence of Repeated Interactions and a Robot's Attitude on Its Perception},
  Author                   = {Jakub Zlotowski and Hidenobu Sumioka and Shuichi Nishio and Dylan Glas and Christoph Bartneck and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Journal                  = {Frontiers in Psychology},
  Year                     = {2015},

  Month                    = JUN,

  Abstract                 = {The uncanny valley theory proposed by Mori has been heavily investigated in the recent years by researchers from various fields. However, the videos and images used in these studies did not permit any human interaction with the uncanny objects. Therefore, in the field of human-robot interaction it is still unclear what and whether an uncanny looking robot will have an impact on an interaction. In this paper we describe an exploratory empirical study that involved repeated interactions with robots that differed in embodiment and their attitude towards a human. We found that both investigated components of the uncanniness (likeability and eeriness) can be affected by an interaction with a robot. Likeability of a robot was mainly affected by its attitude and this effect was especially prominent for a machine-like robot. On the other hand, mere repeated interactions was sufficient to reduce eeriness irrespective of a robot's embodiment. As a result we urge other researchers to investigate Mori's theory in studies that involve actual human-robot interaction in order to fully understand the changing nature of this phenomenon.},
  Doi                      = {10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00883},
  File                     = {Jakub2014a.pdf:pdf/Jakub2014a.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Language                 = {en},
  Url                      = {http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00883/abstract}
}
Martin Cooney, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Importance of Touch for Conveying Affection in a Multimodal Interaction with a Small Humanoid Robot", International Journal of Humanoid Robotics, vol. 12, issue 01, pp. 1550002 (22 pages), 2015.
Abstract: To be accepted as a part of our everyday lives, companion robots will require the capability to recognize people's behavior and respond appropriately. In the current work, we investigated which characteristics of behavior could be used by a small humanoid robot to recognize when a human is seeking to convey affection. A main challenge in doing so was that human social norms are complex, comprising behavior which exhibits high spatiotemporal variance, consists of multiple channels and can express different meanings. To deal with this difficulty, we adopted a combined approach in which we analyzed free interactions and also asked participants to rate short video-clips depicting human-robot interaction. As a result, we are able to present a wide range of findings related to the current topic, including on the fundamental role (prevalence, affectionate impact, and motivations) of actions, channels, and modalities; effects of posture and a robot's behavior; expected reactions; and contributions of modalities in complementary and conflicting configurations. This article extends the existing literature by identifying some useful multimodal affectionate cues which can be leveraged by a robot during interactions; we aim to use the acquired knowledge in a small humanoid robot to provide affection during play toward improving quality of life for lonely persons.
BibTeX:
@Article{Cooney2013b,
  author =          {Martin Cooney and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =           {Importance of Touch for Conveying Affection in a Multimodal Interaction with a Small Humanoid Robot},
  journal =         {International Journal of Humanoid Robotics},
  year =            {2015},
  volume =          {12, issue 01},
  pages =           {1550002 (22 pages)},
  abstract =        {To be accepted as a part of our everyday lives, companion robots will require the capability to recognize people's behavior and respond appropriately. In the current work, we investigated which characteristics of behavior could be used by a small humanoid robot to recognize when a human is seeking to convey affection. A main challenge in doing so was that human social norms are complex, comprising behavior which exhibits high spatiotemporal variance, consists of multiple channels and can express different meanings. To deal with this difficulty, we adopted a combined approach in which we analyzed free interactions and also asked participants to rate short video-clips depicting human-robot interaction. As a result, we are able to present a wide range of findings related to the current topic, including on the fundamental role (prevalence, affectionate impact, and motivations) of actions, channels, and modalities; effects of posture and a robot's behavior; expected reactions; and contributions of modalities in complementary and conflicting configurations. This article extends the existing literature by identifying some useful multimodal affectionate cues which can be leveraged by a robot during interactions; we aim to use the acquired knowledge in a small humanoid robot to provide affection during play toward improving quality of life for lonely persons.},
  doi =             {10.1142/S0219843615500024},
  file =            {Cooney2014a.pdf:pdf/Cooney2014a.pdf:PDF},
  keywords =        {Affection; multi-modal; play; small humanoid robot, human-robot interaction},
}
Martin Cooney, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Affectionate Interaction with a Small Humanoid Robot Capable of Recognizing Social Touch Behavior", ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 32, December, 2014.
Abstract: Activity recognition, involving a capability to automatically recognize people's behavior and its underlying significance, will play a crucial role in facilitating the integration of interactive robotic artifacts into everyday human environments. In particular, social intelligence in recognizing affectionate behavior will offer value by allowing companion robots to bond meaningfully with persons involved. The current article addresses the issue of designing an affectionate haptic interaction between a person and a companion robot by a) furthering understanding of how people's attempts to communicate affection to a robot through touch can be recognized, and b) exploring how a small humanoid robot can behave in conjunction with such touches to elicit affection. We report on an experiment conducted to gain insight into how people perceive three fundamental interactive strategies in which a robot is either always highly affectionate, appropriately affectionate, or superficially unaffectionate (emphasizing positivity, contingency, and challenge respectively). Results provide insight into the structure of affectionate interaction between humans and humanoid robots—underlining the importance of an interaction design expressing sincerity, liking, stability and variation—and suggest the usefulness of novel modalities such as warmth and cold.
BibTeX:
@Article{Cooney2014c,
  author =          {Martin Cooney and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =           {Affectionate Interaction with a Small Humanoid Robot Capable of Recognizing Social Touch Behavior},
  journal =         {{ACM} Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems},
  year =            {2014},
  volume =          {4},
  number =          {4},
  pages =           {32},
  month =           Dec,
  abstract =        {Activity recognition, involving a capability to automatically recognize people's behavior and its underlying significance, will play a crucial role in facilitating the integration of interactive robotic artifacts into everyday human environments. In particular, social intelligence in recognizing affectionate behavior will offer value by allowing companion robots to bond meaningfully with persons involved. The current article addresses the issue of designing an affectionate haptic interaction between a person and a companion robot by a) furthering understanding of how people's attempts to communicate affection to a robot through touch can be recognized, and b) exploring how a small humanoid robot can behave in conjunction with such touches to elicit affection. We report on an experiment conducted to gain insight into how people perceive three fundamental interactive strategies in which a robot is either always highly affectionate, appropriately affectionate, or superficially unaffectionate (emphasizing positivity, contingency, and challenge respectively). Results provide insight into the structure of affectionate interaction between humans and humanoid robots—underlining the importance of an interaction design expressing sincerity, liking, stability and variation—and suggest the usefulness of novel modalities such as warmth and cold.},
  doi =             {10.1145/2685395},
  file =            {Cooney2014b.pdf:pdf/Cooney2014b.pdf:PDF},
  keywords =        {human-robot interaction; activity recognition; small humanoid companion robot; affectionate touch behavior; intelligent systems},
  url =             {http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=2688469.2685395}
}
Rosario Sorbello, Antonio Chella, Carmelo Cali, Marcello Giardina, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Telenoid Android Robot as an Embodied Perceptual Social Regulation Medium Engaging Natural Human-Humanoid Interaction", Robotics and Autonomous Systems Journal, vol. 62, issue 9, pp. 1329-1341, September, 2014.
Abstract: The present paper aims to validate our research on Human-Humanoid Interaction (HHI) using the minimalist humanoid robot Telenoid. We conducted the human-robot interaction test with 142 young people who had no prior interaction experience with this robot. The main goal is the analysis of the two social dimensions ("Perception" and "Believability" ) useful for increasing the natural behaviour between users and Telenoid. We administered our custom questionnaire to human subjects in association with a well defined experimental setting ("ordinary and goal-guided task"). A thorough analysis of the questionnaires has been carried out and reliability and internal consistency in correlation between the multiple items has been calculated. Our experimental results show that the perceptual behavior and believability, as implicit social competences, could improve the meaningfulness and the natural-like sense of human-humanoid interaction in everyday life taskdriven activities. Telenoid is perceived as an autonomous cooperative agent for a shared environment by human beings.
BibTeX:
@Article{Sorbello2013a,
  Title                    = {Telenoid Android Robot as an Embodied Perceptual Social Regulation Medium Engaging Natural Human-Humanoid Interaction},
  Author                   = {Rosario Sorbello and Antonio Chella and Carmelo Cali and Marcello Giardina and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Journal                  = {Robotics and Autonomous Systems Journal},
  Year                     = {2014},

  Month                    = SEP,
  Pages                    = {1329-1341},
  Volume                   = {62, issue 9},

  Abstract                 = {The present paper aims to validate our research on Human-Humanoid Interaction (HHI) using the minimalist humanoid robot Telenoid. We conducted the human-robot interaction test with 142 young people who had no prior interaction experience with this robot. The main goal is the analysis of the two social dimensions ("Perception" and "Believability" ) useful for increasing the natural behaviour between users and Telenoid. We administered our custom questionnaire to human subjects in association with a well defined experimental setting ("ordinary and goal-guided task"). A thorough analysis of the questionnaires has been carried out and reliability and internal consistency in correlation between the multiple items has been calculated. Our experimental results show that the perceptual behavior and believability, as implicit social competences, could improve the meaningfulness and the natural-like sense of human-humanoid interaction in everyday life taskdriven activities. Telenoid is perceived as an autonomous cooperative agent for a shared environment by human beings.},
  Doi                      = {10.1016/j.robot.2014.03.017},
  File                     = {Sorbello2013a.pdf:pdf/Sorbello2013a.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Keywords                 = {Telenoid; Geminoid; Social Robot; Human-Humanoid Robot Interaction},
  Language                 = {en},
  Reviewed                 = {Y},
  Url                      = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S092188901400061X}
}
Maryam Alimardani, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Effect of biased feedback on motor imagery learning in BCI-teleoperation system", Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, vol. 8, no. 52, April, 2014.
Abstract: Feedback design is an important issue in motor imagery BCI systems. Regardless, to date it has not been reported how feedback presentation can optimize co-adaptation between a human brain and such systems. This paper assesses the effect of realistic visual feedback on users' BCI performance and motor imagery skills. We previously developed a tele-operation system for a pair of humanlike robotic hands and showed that BCI control of such hands along with first-person perspective visual feedback of movements can arouse a sense of embodiment in the operators. In the first stage of this study, we found that the intensity of this ownership illusion was associated with feedback presentation and subjects' performance during BCI motion control. In the second stage, we probed the effect of positive and negative feedback bias on subjects' BCI performance and motor imagery skills. Although the subject specific classifier, which was set up at the beginning of experiment, detected no significant change in the subjects' online performance, evaluation of brain activity patterns revealed that subjects' self-regulation of motor imagery features improved due to a positive bias of feedback and a possible occurrence of ownership illusion. Our findings suggest that in general training protocols for BCIs, manipulation of feedback can play an important role in the optimization of subjects' motor imagery skills.
BibTeX:
@Article{Alimardani2014a,
  author =          {Maryam Alimardani and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =           {Effect of biased feedback on motor imagery learning in BCI-teleoperation system},
  journal =         {Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience},
  year =            {2014},
  volume =          {8},
  number =          {52},
  month =           Apr,
  abstract =        {Feedback design is an important issue in motor imagery BCI systems. Regardless, to date it has not been reported how feedback presentation can optimize co-adaptation between a human brain and such systems. This paper assesses the effect of realistic visual feedback on users' BCI performance and motor imagery skills. We previously developed a tele-operation system for a pair of humanlike robotic hands and showed that BCI control of such hands along with first-person perspective visual feedback of movements can arouse a sense of embodiment in the operators. In the first stage of this study, we found that the intensity of this ownership illusion was associated with feedback presentation and subjects' performance during BCI motion control. In the second stage, we probed the effect of positive and negative feedback bias on subjects' BCI performance and motor imagery skills. Although the subject specific classifier, which was set up at the beginning of experiment, detected no significant change in the subjects' online performance, evaluation of brain activity patterns revealed that subjects' self-regulation of motor imagery features improved due to a positive bias of feedback and a possible occurrence of ownership illusion. Our findings suggest that in general training protocols for BCIs, manipulation of feedback can play an important role in the optimization of subjects' motor imagery skills.},
  doi =             {10.3389/fnsys.2014.00052},
  file =            {Alimardani2014a.pdf:pdf/Alimardani2014a.pdf:PDF},
  keywords =        {body ownership illusion; BCI‐teleoperation; motor imagery learning; feedback effect; training},
  url =             {http://journal.frontiersin.org/Journal/10.3389/fnsys.2014.00052/full}
}
Kaiko Kuwamura, Kurima Sakai, Takashi Minato, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Hugvie: communication device for encouraging good relationship through the act of hugging", Lovotics, vol. Vol. 1, Issue 1, pp. 10000104, February, 2014.
Abstract: In this paper, we introduce a communication device which encourages users to establish a good relationship with others. We designed the device so that it allows users to virtually hug the person in the remote site through the medium. In this paper, we report that when a participant talks to his communication partner during their first encounter while hugging the communication medium, he mistakenly feels as if they are establishing a good relationship and that he is being loved rather than just being liked. From this result, we discuss Active Co-Presence, a new method to enhance co-presence of people in remote through active behavior.
BibTeX:
@Article{Kuwamura2014a,
  Title                    = {Hugvie: communication device for encouraging good relationship through the act of hugging},
  Author                   = {Kaiko Kuwamura and Kurima Sakai and Takashi Minato and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Journal                  = {Lovotics},
  Year                     = {2014},

  Month                    = Feb,
  Pages                    = {10000104},
  Volume                   = {Vol. 1, Issue 1},

  Abstract                 = {In this paper, we introduce a communication device which encourages users to establish a good relationship with others. We designed the device so that it allows users to virtually hug the person in the remote site through the medium. In this paper, we report that when a participant talks to his communication partner during their first encounter while hugging the communication medium, he mistakenly feels as if they are establishing a good relationship and that he is being loved rather than just being liked. From this result, we discuss Active Co-Presence, a new method to enhance co-presence of people in remote through active behavior.},
  Acknowledgement          = {This research was partially supported by JST, CREST.},
  Doi                      = {10.4172/2090-9888.10000104},
  File                     = {Kuwamura2014a.pdf:pdf/Kuwamura2014a.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Keywords                 = {hug; co-presence; telecommunication},
  Language                 = {en},
  Reviewed                 = {y},
  Url                      = {http://www.omicsonline.com/open-access/hugvie_communication_device_for_encouraging_good_relationship_through_the_act_of_hugging.pdf?aid=24445}
}
Astrid M. von der Pütten, Nicole C. Krämer, Christian Becker-Asano, Kohei Ogawa, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "The Uncanny in the Wild. Analysis of Unscripted Human-Android Interaction in the Field.", International Journal of Social Robotics, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 67-83, January, 2014.
Abstract: Against the background of the uncanny valley hypothesis we investigated how people react towards an android robot in a natural environment dependent on the behavior displayed by the robot (still vs. moving) in a quasi-experimental observational field study. We present data on unscripted interactions between humans and the android robot “Geminoid HI-1" in an Austrian public café and subsequent interviews. Data were analyzed with regard to the participants' nonverbal behavior (e.g. attention paid to the robot, proximity). We found that participants' behavior towards the android robot as well as their interview answers were influenced by the behavior the robot displayed. In addition, we found huge inter-individual differences in the participants' behavior. Implications for the uncanny valley and research on social human–robot interactions are discussed.
BibTeX:
@Article{Putten2011b,
  author =          {Astrid M. von der P\"{u}tten and Nicole C. Kr\"{a}mer and Christian Becker-Asano and Kohei Ogawa and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =           {The Uncanny in the Wild. Analysis of Unscripted Human-Android Interaction in the Field.},
  journal =         {International Journal of Social Robotics},
  year =            {2014},
  volume =          {6},
  number =          {1},
  pages =           {67-83},
  month =           Jan,
  abstract =        {Against the background of the uncanny valley hypothesis we investigated how people react towards an android robot in a natural environment dependent on the behavior displayed by the robot (still vs. moving) in a quasi-experimental observational field study. We present data on unscripted interactions between humans and the android robot “Geminoid HI-1" in an Austrian public café and subsequent interviews. Data were analyzed with regard to the participants' nonverbal behavior (e.g. attention paid to the robot, proximity). We found that participants' behavior towards the android robot as well as their interview answers were influenced by the behavior the robot displayed. In addition, we found huge inter-individual differences in the participants' behavior. Implications for the uncanny valley and research on social human–robot interactions are discussed.},
  doi =             {10.1007/s12369-013-0198-7},
  file =            {Putten2011b.pdf:pdf/Putten2011b.pdf:PDF},
  keywords =        {human-robot interaction; field study; observation; multimodal evaluation of human interaction with robots; Uncanny Valley},
  url =             {http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12369-013-0198-7}
}
Ryuji Yamazaki, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Marco Nørskov, Nobu Ishiguro, Giuseppe Balistreri, "Acceptability of a Teleoperated Android by Senior Citizens in Danish Society: A Case Study on the Application of an Embodied Communication Medium to Home Care", International Journal of Social Robotics, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 429-442, 2014.
Abstract: We explore the potential of teleoperated androids,which are embodied telecommunication media with humanlike appearances. By conducting field experiments, we investigated how Telenoid, a teleoperated android designed as a minimalistic human, affect people in the real world when it is employed to express telepresence and a sense of ‘being there'. Our exploratory study focused on the social aspects of the android robot, which might facilitate communication between the elderly and Telenoid's operator. This new way of creating social relationships can be used to solve a problem in society, the social isolation of senior citizens. It has been becoming a major issue even in Denmark that is known as one of countries with advanced welfare systems. After asking elderly people to use Te-lenoid at their homes, we found that the elderly with or without dementia showed positive attitudes toward Telenoid and imaginatively developed various dialogue strategies. Their positivity and strong attachment to its minimalistic human design were cross-culturally shared in Denmark and Japan. Contrary to the negative reactions by non-users in media reports, our result suggests that teleoperated androids can be accepted by the elderly as a kind of universal design medium for social inclusion.
BibTeX:
@Article{Yamazaki2013a,
  author =          {Ryuji Yamazaki and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro and Marco N\orskov and Nobu Ishiguro and Giuseppe Balistreri},
  title =           {Acceptability of a Teleoperated Android by Senior Citizens in Danish Society: A Case Study on the Application of an Embodied Communication Medium to Home Care},
  journal =         {International Journal of Social Robotics},
  year =            {2014},
  volume =          {6},
  number =          {3},
  pages =           {429-442},
  abstract =        {We explore the potential of teleoperated androids,which are embodied telecommunication media with humanlike appearances. By conducting field experiments, we investigated how Telenoid, a teleoperated android designed as a minimalistic human, affect people in the real world when it is employed to express telepresence and a sense of ‘being there'. Our exploratory study focused on the social aspects of the android robot, which might facilitate communication between the elderly and Telenoid's operator. This new way of creating social relationships can be used to solve a problem in society, the social isolation of senior citizens. It has been becoming a major issue even in Denmark that is known as one of countries with advanced welfare systems. After asking elderly people to use Te-lenoid at their homes, we found that the elderly with or without dementia showed positive attitudes toward Telenoid and imaginatively developed various dialogue strategies. Their positivity and strong attachment to its minimalistic human design were cross-culturally shared in Denmark and Japan. Contrary to the negative reactions by non-users in media reports, our result suggests that teleoperated androids can be accepted by the elderly as a kind of universal design medium for social inclusion.},
  doi =             {10.1007/s12369-014-0247-x},
  file =            {Yamazaki2013a.pdf:pdf/Yamazaki2013a.pdf:PDF},
  keywords =        {teleoperated android; minimal design; embodied communication; social isolation; elderly care; social acceptance},
}
Hidenobu Sumioka, Shuichi Nishio, Takashi Minato, Ryuji Yamazaki, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Minimal human design approach for sonzai-kan media: investigation of a feeling of human presence", Cognitive Computation, vol. 6, Issue 4, pp. 760-774, 2014.
Abstract: Even though human-like robotic media give the feeling of being with others and positively affect our physical and mental health, scant research has addressed how much information about a person should be reproduced to enhance the feeling of a human presence. We call this feeling sonzai-kan, which is a Japanese phrase that means the feeling of a presence. We propose a minimal design approach for exploring the requirements to enhance this feeling and hypothesize that it is enhanced if information is presented from at least two different modalities. In this approach, the exploration is conducted by designing sonzai-kan media through exploratory research with the media, their evaluations, and the development of their systems. In this paper, we give an overview of our current work with Telenoid, a teleoperated android designed with our approach, to illustrate how we explore the requirements and how such media impact our quality of life. We discuss the potential advantages of our approach for forging positive social relationships and designing an autonomous agent with minimal cognitive architecture.
BibTeX:
@Article{Sumioka2013e,
  author =          {Hidenobu Sumioka and Shuichi Nishio and Takashi Minato and Ryuji Yamazaki and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =           {Minimal human design approach for sonzai-kan media: investigation of a feeling of human presence},
  journal =         {Cognitive Computation},
  year =            {2014},
  volume =          {6, Issue 4},
  pages =           {760-774},
  abstract =        {Even though human-like robotic media give the feeling of being with others and positively affect our physical and mental health, scant research has addressed how much information about a person should be reproduced to enhance the feeling of a human presence. We call this feeling sonzai-kan, which is a Japanese phrase that means the feeling of a presence. We propose a minimal design approach for exploring the requirements to enhance this feeling and hypothesize that it is enhanced if information is presented from at least two different modalities. In this approach, the exploration is conducted by designing sonzai-kan media through exploratory research with the media, their evaluations, and the development of their systems. In this paper, we give an overview of our current work with Telenoid, a teleoperated android designed with our approach, to illustrate how we explore the requirements and how such media impact our quality of life. We discuss the potential advantages of our approach for forging positive social relationships and designing an autonomous agent with minimal cognitive architecture.},
  doi =             {10.1007/s12559-014-9270-3},
  file =            {Sumioka2014.pdf:pdf/Sumioka2014.pdf:PDF},
  keywords =        {Human–robot Interaction; Minimal design; Elderly care; Android science},
  url =             {http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12559-014-9270-3}
}
Kurima Sakai, Hidenobu Sumioka, Takashi Minato, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Motion Design of Interactive Small Humanoid Robot with Visual Illusion", International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control, vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 4725-4736, December, 2013.
Abstract: This paper presents a novel method to express motions of a small human-like robotic avatar that can be a portable communication medium: a user can talk with another person while feeling the other's presence at anytime, anywhere. The human-like robotic avatar is expected to express human-like movements; however, there are technical and cost problems in implementing actuators in the small body. The method is to induce illusory motion of the robot's extremities with blinking lights. This idea needs only Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) and avoids the above problems. This paper presents the design of an LED blinking pattern to induce an illusory nodding motion of Elfoid, which is a hand-held tele-operated humanoid robot. A psychological experiment shows that the illusory nodding motion gives a better impression to people than a symbolic blinking pattern. This result suggests that even the illusory motion of a robotic avatar can improve tele-communications.
BibTeX:
@Article{Sakai2013,
  author =          {Kurima Sakai and Hidenobu Sumioka and Takashi Minato and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =           {Motion Design of Interactive Small Humanoid Robot with Visual Illusion},
  journal =         {International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control},
  year =            {2013},
  volume =          {9},
  number =          {12},
  pages =           {4725-4736},
  month =           Dec,
  abstract =        {This paper presents a novel method to express motions of a small human-like robotic avatar that can be a portable communication medium: a user can talk with another person while feeling the other's presence at anytime, anywhere. The human-like robotic avatar is expected to express human-like movements; however, there are technical and cost problems in implementing actuators in the small body. The method is to induce illusory motion of the robot's extremities with blinking lights. This idea needs only Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) and avoids the above problems. This paper presents the design of an LED blinking pattern to induce an illusory nodding motion of Elfoid, which is a hand-held tele-operated humanoid robot. A psychological experiment shows that the illusory nodding motion gives a better impression to people than a symbolic blinking pattern. This result suggests that even the illusory motion of a robotic avatar can improve tele-communications.},
  file =            {Sakai2013.pdf:pdf/Sakai2013.pdf:PDF},
  keywords =        {Tele-communication; Nonverbal communication; Portable robot avatar; Visual illusion of motion},
  url =             {http://www.ijicic.org/apchi12-275.pdf}
}
Martin Cooney, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Designing Robots for Well-being: Theoretical Background and Visual Scenes of Affectionate Play with a Small Humanoid Robot", Lovotics, November, 2013.
Abstract: Social well-being, referring to a subjectively perceived long-term state of happiness, life satisfaction, health, and other prosperity afforded by social interactions, is increasingly being employed to rate the success of human social systems. Although short-term changes in well-being can be difficult to measure directly, two important determinants can be assessed: perceived enjoyment and affection from relationships. The current article chronicles our work over several years toward achieving enjoyable and affectionate interactions with robots, with the aim of contributing to perception of social well-being in interacting persons. Emphasis has been placed on both describing in detail the theoretical basis underlying our work, and relating the story of each of several designs from idea to evaluation in a visual fashion. For the latter, we trace the course of designing four different robotic artifacts intended to further our understanding of how to provide enjoyment, elicit affection, and realize one specific scenario for affectionate play. As a result, by describing (a) how perceived enjoyment and affection contribute to social well-being, and (b) how a small humanoid robot can proactively engage in enjoyable and affectionate play—recognizing people's behavior and leveraging this knowledge—the current article informs the design of companion robots intended to facilitate a perception of social well-being in interacting persons during affectionate play.
BibTeX:
@Article{Cooney2013d,
  author =          {Martin Cooney and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =           {Designing Robots for Well-being: Theoretical Background and Visual Scenes of Affectionate Play with a Small Humanoid Robot},
  journal =         {Lovotics},
  year =            {2013},
  month =           Nov,
  abstract =        {Social well-being, referring to a subjectively perceived long-term state of happiness, life satisfaction, health, and other prosperity afforded by social interactions, is increasingly being employed to rate the success of human social systems. Although short-term changes in well-being can be difficult to measure directly, two important determinants can be assessed: perceived enjoyment and affection from relationships. The current article chronicles our work over several years toward achieving enjoyable and affectionate interactions with robots, with the aim of contributing to perception of social well-being in interacting persons. Emphasis has been placed on both describing in detail the theoretical basis underlying our work, and relating the story of each of several designs from idea to evaluation in a visual fashion. For the latter, we trace the course of designing four different robotic artifacts intended to further our understanding of how to provide enjoyment, elicit affection, and realize one specific scenario for affectionate play. As a result, by describing (a) how perceived enjoyment and affection contribute to social well-being, and (b) how a small humanoid robot can proactively engage in enjoyable and affectionate play—recognizing people's behavior and leveraging this knowledge—the current article informs the design of companion robots intended to facilitate a perception of social well-being in interacting persons during affectionate play.},
  doi =             {10.4172/2090-9888.1000101},
  file =            {Cooney2013d.pdf:pdf/Cooney2013d.pdf:PDF},
  keywords =        {Human-robot interaction; well-being; enjoyment; affection; recognizing typical behavior; small humanoid robot},
  url =             {http://www.omicsonline.com/open-access/designing_robots_for_well_being_theoretical_background_and_visual.pdf?aid=24444}
}
Maryam Alimardani, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Humanlike robot hands controlled by brain activity arouse illusion of ownership in operators", Scientific Reports, vol. 3, no. 2396, August, 2013.
Abstract: Operators of a pair of robotic hands report ownership for those hands when they hold image of a grasp motion and watch the robot perform it. We present a novel body ownership illusion that is induced by merely watching and controlling robot's motions through a brain machine interface. In past studies, body ownership illusions were induced by correlation of such sensory inputs as vision, touch and proprioception. However, in the presented illusion none of the mentioned sensations are integrated except vision. Our results show that during BMI-operation of robotic hands, the interaction between motor commands and visual feedback of the intended motions is adequate to incorporate the non-body limbs into one's own body. Our discussion focuses on the role of proprioceptive information in the mechanism of agency-driven illusions. We believe that our findings will contribute to improvement of tele-presence systems in which operators incorporate BMI-operated robots into their body representations.
BibTeX:
@Article{Alimardani2013,
  author =          {Maryam Alimardani and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =           {Humanlike robot hands controlled by brain activity arouse illusion of ownership in operators},
  journal =         {Scientific Reports},
  year =            {2013},
  volume =          {3},
  number =          {2396},
  month =           Aug,
  abstract =        {Operators of a pair of robotic hands report ownership for those hands when they hold image of a grasp motion and watch the robot perform it. We present a novel body ownership illusion that is induced by merely watching and controlling robot's motions through a brain machine interface. In past studies, body ownership illusions were induced by correlation of such sensory inputs as vision, touch and proprioception. However, in the presented illusion none of the mentioned sensations are integrated except vision. Our results show that during BMI-operation of robotic hands, the interaction between motor commands and visual feedback of the intended motions is adequate to incorporate the non-body limbs into one's own body. Our discussion focuses on the role of proprioceptive information in the mechanism of agency-driven illusions. We believe that our findings will contribute to improvement of tele-presence systems in which operators incorporate BMI-operated robots into their body representations.},
  day =             {9},
  doi =             {10.1038/srep02396},
  file =            {alimardani2013a.pdf:pdf/alimardani2013a.pdf:PDF},
  url =             {http://www.nature.com/srep/2013/130809/srep02396/full/srep02396.html}
}
Shuichi Nishio, Koichi Taura, Hidenobu Sumioka, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Teleoperated Android Robot as Emotion Regulation Media", International Journal of Social Robotics, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 563-573, July, 2013.
Abstract: In this paper, we experimentally examined whether changes in the facial expressions of teleoperated androids could affect and regulate operators' emotion, based on the facial feedback theory of emotion and the phenomenon of body ownership transfer to the robot. Twenty-six Japanese participants had conversations with an experimenter based on a situation where participants feel anger and, during the conversation, the android's facial expression changed according to a pre-programmed scheme. The results showed that the facial feedback from the android did occur. Moreover, by comparing the two groups of participants, one with operating the robot and another without operating it, we found that this facial feedback from the android robot occur only when participants operated the robot and, when an operator could effectively operate the robot, his/her emotional states were much affected by facial expression change of the robot.
BibTeX:
@Article{Nishio2013a,
  author =          {Shuichi Nishio and Koichi Taura and Hidenobu Sumioka and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =           {Teleoperated Android Robot as Emotion Regulation Media},
  journal =         {International Journal of Social Robotics},
  year =            {2013},
  volume =          {5},
  number =          {4},
  pages =           {563-573},
  month =           Jul,
  abstract =        {In this paper, we experimentally examined whether changes in the facial expressions of teleoperated androids could affect and regulate operators' emotion, based on the facial feedback theory of emotion and the phenomenon of body ownership transfer to the robot. Twenty-six Japanese participants had conversations with an experimenter based on a situation where participants feel anger and, during the conversation, the android's facial expression changed according to a pre-programmed scheme. The results showed that the facial feedback from the android did occur. Moreover, by comparing the two groups of participants, one with operating the robot and another without operating it, we found that this facial feedback from the android robot occur only when participants operated the robot and, when an operator could effectively operate the robot, his/her emotional states were much affected by facial expression change of the robot.},
  doi =             {10.1007/s12369-013-0201-3},
  file =            {Nishio2013a.pdf:pdf/Nishio2013a.pdf:PDF},
  keywords =        {Teleoperated android robot; Emotion regulation; Facial feedback hypothesis; Body ownership transfer},
  url =             {http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12369-013-0201-3}
}
Ryuji Yamazaki, Shuichi Nishio, Kohei Ogawa, Kohei Matsumura, Takashi Minato, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Tsutomu Fujinami, Masaru Nishikawa, "Promoting Socialization of Schoolchildren Using a Teleoperated Android: An Interaction Study", International Journal of Humanoid Robotics, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1350007(1-25), April, 2013.
Abstract: Our research focuses on the social aspects of teleoperated androids as new media for human relationships and explores how they can contribute and encourage people to associate with others. We introduced Telenoid, a teleoperated android with a minimalistic human design, to elementary school classrooms to see how children respond to it. We found that Telenoid encourages children to work cooperatively and facilitates communication with senior citizens with dementia. Children differentiated their roles spontaneously and cooperatively participated in group work. In another class, we applied Telenoid to remote communication between schoolchildren and assisted living residents. The children felt relaxed about continuing their conversations with the elderly and positively participated in them. The results suggest that limited functionality may facilitate cooperation among participants, and varied embodiments may promote the learning process of the association with others, even those who are unfamiliar. We propose a teleoperated android as an educational tool to promote socialization.
BibTeX:
@Article{Yamazaki2012e,
  author =          {Ryuji Yamazaki and Shuichi Nishio and Kohei Ogawa and Kohei Matsumura and Takashi Minato and Hiroshi Ishiguro and Tsutomu Fujinami and Masaru Nishikawa},
  title =           {Promoting Socialization of Schoolchildren Using a Teleoperated Android: An Interaction Study},
  journal =         {International Journal of Humanoid Robotics},
  year =            {2013},
  volume =          {10},
  number =          {1},
  pages =           {1350007(1-25)},
  month =           Apr,
  abstract =        {Our research focuses on the social aspects of teleoperated androids as new media for human relationships and explores how they can contribute and encourage people to associate with others. We introduced Telenoid, a teleoperated android with a minimalistic human design, to elementary school classrooms to see how children respond to it. We found that Telenoid encourages children to work cooperatively and facilitates communication with senior citizens with dementia. Children differentiated their roles spontaneously and cooperatively participated in group work. In another class, we applied Telenoid to remote communication between schoolchildren and assisted living residents. The children felt relaxed about continuing their conversations with the elderly and positively participated in them. The results suggest that limited functionality may facilitate cooperation among participants, and varied embodiments may promote the learning process of the association with others, even those who are unfamiliar. We propose a teleoperated android as an educational tool to promote socialization.},
  day =             {2},
  doi =             {10.1142/S0219843613500072},
  file =            {Yamazaki2012e.pdf:pdf/Yamazaki2012e.pdf:PDF},
  keywords =        {Telecommunication; android robot; minimal design; cooperation; role differentiation; inter-generational relationship; embodied communication; teleoperation; socialization},
  url =             {http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0219843613500072}
}
Kohei Ogawa, Shuichi Nishio, Kensuke Koda, Giuseppe Balistreri, Tetsuya Watanabe, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Exploring the Natural Reaction of Young and Aged Person with Telenoid in a Real World", Journal of Advanced Computational Intelligence and Intelligent Informatics, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 592-597, July, 2011.
Abstract: This paper describes two field tests conducted with shopping mall visitors and with aged persons defined as in their 70s to 90s. For both of the field tests, we used an android we developed called Telenoid R1 or just Telenoid. In the following field tests we interviewed participants about their impressions of the Telenoid. The results of the shopping mall showed that almost half of the interviewees felt negative toward Telenoid until they hugged it, after which opinions became positive. Results of the other test showed that the majority of aged persons reported a positive opinion and, interestingly, all aged persons who interacted with Telenoid gave it a hug without any suggestion to do so. This suggests that older persons find Telenoid to be acceptable medium for the elderly. Younger persons may also find Telenoid acceptable, seeing that visitors developed positive feelings toward the robot after giving it a hug. These results should prove valuable in our future work with androids.
BibTeX:
@Article{Ogawa2011,
  author =          {Kohei Ogawa and Shuichi Nishio and Kensuke Koda and Giuseppe Balistreri and Tetsuya Watanabe and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =           {Exploring the Natural Reaction of Young and Aged Person with Telenoid in a Real World},
  journal =         {Journal of Advanced Computational Intelligence and Intelligent Informatics},
  year =            {2011},
  volume =          {15},
  number =          {5},
  pages =           {592--597},
  month =           Jul,
  abstract =        {This paper describes two field tests conducted with shopping mall visitors and with aged persons defined as in their 70s to 90s. For both of the field tests, we used an android we developed called Telenoid R1 or just Telenoid. In the following field tests we interviewed participants about their impressions of the Telenoid. The results of the shopping mall showed that almost half of the interviewees felt negative toward Telenoid until they hugged it, after which opinions became positive. Results of the other test showed that the majority of aged persons reported a positive opinion and, interestingly, all aged persons who interacted with Telenoid gave it a hug without any suggestion to do so. This suggests that older persons find Telenoid to be acceptable medium for the elderly. Younger persons may also find Telenoid acceptable, seeing that visitors developed positive feelings toward the robot after giving it a hug. These results should prove valuable in our future work with androids.},
  file =            {Ogawa2011.pdf:Ogawa2011.pdf:PDF},
  keywords =        {Telenoid; Geminoid; human robot interaction},
  url =             {http://www.fujipress.jp/finder/xslt.php?mode=present&inputfile=JACII001500050012.xml}
}
Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Attitude Change Induced by Different Appearances of Interaction Agents", International Journal of Machine Consciousness, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 115-126, 2011.
Abstract: Human-robot interaction studies up to now have been limited to simple tasks such as route guidance or playing simple games. With the advance in robotic technologies, we are now at the stage to explore requirements for highly complicated tasks such as having human-like conversations. When robots start to play advanced roles in our lives such as in health care, attributes such as trust, reliance and persuasiveness will also be important. In this paper, we examine how the appearance of robots affects people's attitudes toward them. Past studies have shown that the appearance of robots is one of the elements that influences people's behavior. However, it is still unknown what effect appearance has when having serious conversations that require high-level activity. Participants were asked to have a discussion with tele-operated robots of various appearances such as an android with high similarity to a human or a humanoid robot that has human-like body parts. Through the discussion, the tele-operator tried to persuade the participants. We examined how appearance affects robots' persuasiveness as well as people's behavior and impression of robots. A possible contribution to machine consciousness research is also discussed.
BibTeX:
@Article{Nishio2011,
  author =          {Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =           {Attitude Change Induced by Different Appearances of Interaction Agents},
  journal =         {International Journal of Machine Consciousness},
  year =            {2011},
  volume =          {3},
  number =          {1},
  pages =           {115--126},
  abstract =        {Human-robot interaction studies up to now have been limited to simple tasks such as route guidance or playing simple games. With the advance in robotic technologies, we are now at the stage to explore requirements for highly complicated tasks such as having human-like conversations. When robots start to play advanced roles in our lives such as in health care, attributes such as trust, reliance and persuasiveness will also be important. In this paper, we examine how the appearance of robots affects people's attitudes toward them. Past studies have shown that the appearance of robots is one of the elements that influences people's behavior. However, it is still unknown what effect appearance has when having serious conversations that require high-level activity. Participants were asked to have a discussion with tele-operated robots of various appearances such as an android with high similarity to a human or a humanoid robot that has human-like body parts. Through the discussion, the tele-operator tried to persuade the participants. We examined how appearance affects robots' persuasiveness as well as people's behavior and impression of robots. A possible contribution to machine consciousness research is also discussed.},
  doi =             {10.1142/S1793843011000637},
  file =            {Nishio2011.pdf:Nishio2011.pdf:PDF},
  keywords =        {Robot; appearance; interaction agents; human-robot interaction},
  url =             {http://www.worldscinet.com/ijmc/03/0301/S1793843011000637.html}
}
Takayuki Kanda, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Norihiro Hagita, "Interactive Humanoid Robots and Androids in Children's Lives", Children, Youth and Environments, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 12-33, 2009.
Abstract: This paper provides insight into how recent progress in robotics could affect children's lives in the not-so-distant future. We describe two studies in which robots were presented to children in the context of their daily lives. The results of the first study, which was conducted in an elementary school with a mechanical-looking humanoid robot, showed that the robot affected children's behaviors, feelings, and even their friendships. The second study is a case study in which children performed daily conversational tasks with a geminoid, a teleoperated android robot that resembles a living individual. The results showed that children gradually adapted to conversations with the geminoid and developed an awareness of the personality or presence of the person controlling the geminoid. These studies provide clues to the process of children's adaptation to interactions with robots and particularly how they start treating robots as intelligent beings.
BibTeX:
@Article{Kanda2009,
  author =          {Takayuki Kanda and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro and Norihiro Hagita},
  title =           {Interactive Humanoid Robots and Androids in Children's Lives},
  journal =         {Children, Youth and Environments},
  year =            {2009},
  volume =          {19},
  number =          {1},
  pages =           {12--33},
  abstract =        {This paper provides insight into how recent progress in robotics could affect children's lives in the not-so-distant future. We describe two studies in which robots were presented to children in the context of their daily lives. The results of the first study, which was conducted in an elementary school with a mechanical-looking humanoid robot, showed that the robot affected children's behaviors, feelings, and even their friendships. The second study is a case study in which children performed daily conversational tasks with a geminoid, a teleoperated android robot that resembles a living individual. The results showed that children gradually adapted to conversations with the geminoid and developed an awareness of the personality or presence of the person controlling the geminoid. These studies provide clues to the process of children's adaptation to interactions with robots and particularly how they start treating robots as intelligent beings.},
  file =            {Kanda2009.pdf:Kanda2009.pdf:PDF;19_1_02_HumanoidRobots.pdf:http\://www.colorado.edu/journals/cye/19_1/19_1_02_HumanoidRobots.pdf:PDF},
}
Hiroshi Ishiguro, Shuichi Nishio, "Building artificial humans to understand humans", Journal of Artificial Organs, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 133-142, September, 2007.
Abstract: If we could build an android as a very humanlike robot, how would we humans distinguish a real human from an android? The answer to this question is not so easy. In human-android interaction, we cannot see the internal mechanism of the android, and thus we may simply believe that it is a human. This means that a human can be defined from two perspectives: one by organic mechanism and the other by appearance. Further, the current rapid progress in artificial organs makes this distinction confusing. The approach discussed in this article is to create artificial humans with humanlike appearances. The developed artificial humans, an android and a geminoid, can be used to improve understanding of humans through psychological and cognitive tests conducted using the artificial humans. We call this new approach to understanding humans android science.
BibTeX:
@Article{Ishiguro2007,
  author =      {Hiroshi Ishiguro and Shuichi Nishio},
  title =       {Building artificial humans to understand humans},
  journal =     {Journal of Artificial Organs},
  year =        {2007},
  volume =      {10},
  number =      {3},
  pages =       {133--142},
  month =       Sep,
  abstract =    {If we could build an android as a very humanlike robot, how would we humans distinguish a real human from an android? The answer to this question is not so easy. In human-android interaction, we cannot see the internal mechanism of the android, and thus we may simply believe that it is a human. This means that a human can be defined from two perspectives: one by organic mechanism and the other by appearance. Further, the current rapid progress in artificial organs makes this distinction confusing. The approach discussed in this article is to create artificial humans with humanlike appearances. The developed artificial humans, an android and a geminoid, can be used to improve understanding of humans through psychological and cognitive tests conducted using the artificial humans. We call this new approach to understanding humans android science.},
  doi =         {10.1007/s10047-007-0381-4},
  file =        {Ishiguro2007.pdf:Ishiguro2007.pdf:PDF},
  institution = {{ATR} Intelligent Robotics and Communication Laboratories, Department of Adaptive Machine Systems, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan.},
  keywords =    {Behavior; Behavioral Sciences, methods; Cognitive Science, methods; Facial Expression; Female; Humans, anatomy /&/ histology/psychology; Male; Movement; Perception; Robotics, instrumentation/methods},
  medline-pst = {ppublish},
  pmid =        {17846711},
  url =         {http://www.springerlink.com/content/pmv076w723140244/}
}
Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Norihiro Hagita, "Can a Teleoperated Android Represent Personal Presence? - A Case Study with Children", Psychologia, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 330-342, 2007.
Abstract: Our purpose is to investigate the key elements for representing personal presence, which is the sense of being with a certain individual. A case study is reported in which children performed daily conversational tasks with a geminoid, a teleoperated android robot that resembles a living individual. Different responses to the geminoid and the original person are examined, especially concentrating on the case where the target child was the daughter of the geminoid source. Results showed that children gradually became adapted to conversation with the geminoid, but the operator's personal presence was not completely represented. Further research topics on the adaptation process to androids and on seeking for the key elements on personal presence are discussed.
BibTeX:
@Article{Nishio2007,
  author =          {Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro and Norihiro Hagita},
  title =           {Can a Teleoperated Android Represent Personal Presence? - A Case Study with Children},
  journal =         {Psychologia},
  year =            {2007},
  volume =          {50},
  number =          {4},
  pages =           {330--342},
  abstract =        {Our purpose is to investigate the key elements for representing personal presence, which is the sense of being with a certain individual. A case study is reported in which children performed daily conversational tasks with a geminoid, a teleoperated android robot that resembles a living individual. Different responses to the geminoid and the original person are examined, especially concentrating on the case where the target child was the daughter of the geminoid source. Results showed that children gradually became adapted to conversation with the geminoid, but the operator's personal presence was not completely represented. Further research topics on the adaptation process to androids and on seeking for the key elements on personal presence are discussed.},
  doi =             {10.2117/psysoc.2007.330},
  file =            {Nishio2007.pdf:Nishio2007.pdf:PDF},
  url =             {http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/psysoc/50/4/50_330/_article}
}
Reviewed Conference Papers
Masa Jazbec, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Masataka Okubo, Christian Penaloza, "Body-swapping Experiment with an Android - Investigation of The Relationship Between Agency and a Sense of Ownership Toward a Different Body", In The 2017 Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI2017), Vienna, Austria, pp. 143-144, March, 2017.
Abstract: The experiment described in this paper is performed within a system that provides a human with the possibility and capability to be physically immersed in the body of an android robot, Geminoid HI-2.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Jazbec2017,
  author =    {Masa Jazbec and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro and Masataka Okubo and Christian Penaloza},
  title =     {Body-swapping Experiment with an Android - Investigation of The Relationship Between Agency and a Sense of Ownership Toward a Different Body},
  booktitle = {The 2017 Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI2017)},
  year =      {2017},
  pages =     {143-144},
  address =   {Vienna, Austria},
  month =     Mar,
  abstract =  {The experiment described in this paper is performed within a system that provides a human with the possibility and capability to be physically immersed in the body of an android robot, Geminoid HI-2.},
  url =       {http://humanrobotinteraction.org/2017/}
}
Maryam Alimardani, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "BCI-teleoperated androids; A study of embodiment and its effect on motor imagery learning", In Workshop "Quo Vadis Robotics & Intelligent Systems" in IEEE 19 th International Conference on Intelligent Engineering Systems 2015, Bratislava, Slovakia, September, 2015.
Abstract: This paper presents a brain computer interface(BCI) system developed for the tele-operation of a very humanlike android. Employing this system, we review two studies that give insights into the cognitive mechanism of agency and body ownership during BCI control, as well as feedback designs for optimization of user's BCI skills. In the first experiment operators experienced an illusion of embodiment (in terms of body ownership and agency) for the robot's body only by imagining a movement (motor imagery) and watching the robot perform it. Also using the same setup, we could further discover that during BCIoperation of the android, biasing the timing and accuracy of the performance feedback could improve operators'modulation of brain activities during the motor imagery task. Our experiments showed that the motor imagery skills acquired through this technique were not limited to the android robot, and had long-lasting effects for other BCI usage as well. Therefore, by focusing on the human side of BCIs and demonstrating a relationship between the body ownership sensation and motor imagery learning, our BCIteleoperation system offers a new and efficient platform for general BCI application.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Alimardani2015,
  author =    {Maryam Alimardani and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =     {BCI-teleoperated androids; A study of embodiment and its effect on motor imagery learning},
  booktitle = {Workshop "Quo Vadis Robotics \& Intelligent Systems" in IEEE 19 th International Conference on Intelligent Engineering Systems 2015},
  year =      {2015},
  address =   {Bratislava, Slovakia},
  month =     Sep,
  abstract =  {This paper presents a brain computer interface(BCI) system developed for the tele-operation of a very humanlike android. Employing this system, we review two studies that give insights into the cognitive mechanism of agency and body ownership during BCI control, as well as feedback designs for optimization of user's BCI skills. In the first experiment operators experienced an illusion of embodiment (in terms of body ownership and agency) for the robot's body only by imagining a movement (motor imagery) and watching the robot perform it. Also using the same setup, we could further discover that during BCIoperation of the android, biasing the timing and accuracy of the performance feedback could improve operators'modulation of brain activities during the motor imagery task. Our experiments showed that the motor imagery skills acquired through this technique were not limited to the android robot, and had long-lasting effects for other BCI usage as well. Therefore, by focusing on the human side of BCIs and demonstrating a relationship between the body ownership sensation and motor imagery learning, our BCIteleoperation system offers a new and efficient platform for general BCI application.},
  file =      {Alimardani2015.pdf:pdf/Alimardani2015.pdf:PDF},
}
Maryam Alimardani, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "The effect of feedback presentation on motor imagery performance during BCI-teleoperation of a humanlike robot", In IEEE International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics, Sao Paulo, Brazil, pp. 403-408, August, 2014.
Abstract: Users of a brain-computer interface (BCI) learn to co-adapt with the system through the feedback they receive. Particularly in case of motor imagery BCIs, feedback design can play an important role in the course of motor imagery training. In this paper we investigated the effect of biased visual feedback on performance and motor imagery skills of users during BCI control of a pair of humanlike robotic hands. Although the subject specific classifier, which was set up at the beginning of experiment, detected no significant change in the subjects' online performance, evaluation of brain activity patterns revealed that subjects' self-regulation of motor imagery features improved due to a positive bias of feedback. We discuss how this effect could be possibly due to the humanlike design of feedback and occurrence of body ownership illusion. Our findings suggest that in general training protocols for BCIs, realistic feedback design and subject's self-evaluation of performance can play an important role in the optimization of motor imagery skills.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Alimardani2014,
  author =          {Maryam Alimardani and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =           {The effect of feedback presentation on motor imagery performance during BCI-teleoperation of a humanlike robot},
  booktitle =       {IEEE International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics},
  year =            {2014},
  pages =           {403-408},
  address =         {Sao Paulo, Brazil},
  month =           Aug,
  abstract =        {Users of a brain-computer interface (BCI) learn to co-adapt with the system through the feedback they receive. Particularly in case of motor imagery BCIs, feedback design can play an important role in the course of motor imagery training. In this paper we investigated the effect of biased visual feedback on performance and motor imagery skills of users during BCI control of a pair of humanlike robotic hands. Although the subject specific classifier, which was set up at the beginning of experiment, detected no significant change in the subjects' online performance, evaluation of brain activity patterns revealed that subjects' self-regulation of motor imagery features improved due to a positive bias of feedback. We discuss how this effect could be possibly due to the humanlike design of feedback and occurrence of body ownership illusion. Our findings suggest that in general training protocols for BCIs, realistic feedback design and subject's self-evaluation of performance can play an important role in the optimization of motor imagery skills.},
  day =             {12-15},
  doi =             {10.1109/BIOROB.2014.6913810},
  file =            {Alimardani2014b.pdf:pdf/Alimardani2014b.pdf:PDF},
}
Daisuke Nakamichi, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Training of telecommunication through teleoperated android "Telenoid" and its effect", In The 23rd IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, pp. 1083-1088, August, 2014.
Abstract: Telenoid, a teleoperated android is a medium through which its teleoperators can transmit both verbal and nonverbal information to interlocutors. Telenoid promotes conversation with its interlocutors, especially elderly people. But since teleoperators admit that they have difficulty feeling that they are actually teleoperating their robots, they can't use them effectively to transmit nonverbal information; such nonverbal information is one of Telenoid's biggest merits. In this paper, we propose a training program for teleoperators so that they can understand Telenoid's teleoperation and how to transmit nonverbal information through it. We investigated its effect on teleoperation and communication and identified three results. First, our training improved Telenoid's head motions for clearer transmission of nonverbal information. Second, our training found different effects between genders. Females communicated with their interlocutors more smoothly than males. Males communicated with their interlocutors more smoothly by simply more talking practice. Third, correlations exist among freely controlling the robot, regarding the robot as themselves, and tele-presence in the interlocutors room as well as correlations between the interactions and themselves. But there are not correlations between feelings about Telenoids teleoperation and the head movements.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Nakamichi2014,
  author =          {Daisuke Nakamichi and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =           {Training of telecommunication through teleoperated android "Telenoid" and its effect},
  booktitle =       {The 23rd IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication},
  year =            {2014},
  pages =           {1083-1088},
  address =         {Edinburgh, Scotland, UK},
  month =           Aug,
  abstract =        {Telenoid, a teleoperated android is a medium through which its teleoperators can transmit both verbal and nonverbal information to interlocutors. Telenoid promotes conversation with its interlocutors, especially elderly people. But since teleoperators admit that they have difficulty feeling that they are actually teleoperating their robots, they can't use them effectively to transmit nonverbal information; such nonverbal information is one of Telenoid's biggest merits. In this paper, we propose a training program for teleoperators so that they can understand Telenoid's teleoperation and how to transmit nonverbal information through it. We investigated its effect on teleoperation and communication and identified three results. First, our training improved Telenoid's head motions for clearer transmission of nonverbal information. Second, our training found different effects between genders. Females communicated with their interlocutors more smoothly than males. Males communicated with their interlocutors more smoothly by simply more talking practice. Third, correlations exist among freely controlling the robot, regarding the robot as themselves, and tele-presence in the interlocutors room as well as correlations between the interactions and themselves. But there are not correlations between feelings about Telenoids teleoperation and the head movements.},
  day =             {25-29},
  file =            {Nakamichi2014.pdf:pdf/Nakamichi2014.pdf:PDF},
  url =             {http://rehabilitationrobotics.net/ro-man14/}
}
Kaiko Kuwamura, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Designing Robots for Positive Communication with Senior Citizens", In The 13th Intelligent Autonomous Systems conference, Padova, Italy, July, 2014.
Abstract: Several previous researches indicated that the elderly, especially those with cognitive disorders, have positive impressions of Telenoid, a teleoperated android covered with soft vinyl. Senior citizens with cognitive disorders have low cognitive ability and duller senses due to their age. To communicate, we believe that they have to imagine the information that is missing because they failed to completely receive it in their mind. We hypothesize that Telenoid triggers and enhances such an ability to imagine and positively complete the information, and so they become attracted to Telenoid. Based on this hypothesis, we discuss the factors that trigger imagination and complete positive impressions toward a robot for elderly care.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Kuwamura2014c,
  author =          {Kaiko Kuwamura and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =           {Designing Robots for Positive Communication with Senior Citizens},
  booktitle =       {The 13th Intelligent Autonomous Systems conference},
  year =            {2014},
  address =         {Padova, Italy},
  month =           Jul,
  abstract =        {Several previous researches indicated that the elderly, especially those with cognitive disorders, have positive impressions of Telenoid, a teleoperated android covered with soft vinyl. Senior citizens with cognitive disorders have low cognitive ability and duller senses due to their age. To communicate, we believe that they have to imagine the information that is missing because they failed to completely receive it in their mind. We hypothesize that Telenoid triggers and enhances such an ability to imagine and positively complete the information, and so they become attracted to Telenoid. Based on this hypothesis, we discuss the factors that trigger imagination and complete positive impressions toward a robot for elderly care.},
  day =             {15-19},
  file =            {Kuwamura2014c.pdf:pdf/Kuwamura2014c.pdf:PDF},
  url =             {http://www.ias-13.org/}
}
Rosario Sorbello, Antonio Chella, Marcello Giardina, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "An Architecture for Telenoid Robot as Empathic Conversational Android Companion for Elderly People", In the 13th International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems, Padova, Italy, July, 2014.
Abstract: In Human-Humanoid Interaction (HHI), empathy is a crucial key in order to overcome the current limitations of social robots. In facts, a principal de ning characteristic of human social behaviour is empathy. The present paper presents a robotic architecture for an android robot as a basis for natural empathic human-android interaction. We start from the hypothesis that the robots, in order to become personal companions need to know how to empathic interact with human beings. To validate our research, we have used the proposed system with the minimalistic humanoid robot Telenoid. We have conducted human-robot interactions test with elderly people with no prior interaction experience with robot. During the experiment the elderly persons engaged a stimulated conversation with the humanoid robot. Our goal is to overcome the state of loneliness of elderly people using this minimalistic humanoid robot capa- ble to exhibit a dialogue similar to what usually happens in the real life between human beings.The experimental results have shown a humanoid robotic system capable to exhibit a natural and empathic interaction and conversation with a human user.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Sorbello2014,
  Title                    = {An Architecture for Telenoid Robot as Empathic Conversational Android Companion for Elderly People},
  Author                   = {Rosario Sorbello and Antonio Chella and Marcello Giardina and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Booktitle                = {the 13th International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems},
  Year                     = {2014},

  Address                  = {Padova, Italy},
  Month                    = Jul,

  Abstract                 = {In Human-Humanoid Interaction (HHI), empathy is a crucial key in order to overcome the current limitations of social robots. In facts, a principal dening characteristic of human social behaviour is empathy. The present paper presents a robotic architecture for an android robot as a basis for natural empathic human-android interaction. We start from the hypothesis that the robots, in order to become personal companions need to know how to empathic interact with human beings. To validate our research, we have used the proposed system with the minimalistic humanoid robot Telenoid. We have conducted human-robot interactions test with elderly people with no prior interaction experience with robot. During the experiment the elderly persons engaged a stimulated conversation with the humanoid robot. Our goal is to overcome the state of loneliness of elderly people using this minimalistic humanoid robot capa- ble to exhibit a dialogue similar to what usually happens in the real life between human beings.The experimental results have shown a humanoid robotic system capable to exhibit a natural and empathic interaction and conversation with a human user.},
  Day                      = {15-19},
  File                     = {Sorbello2014.pdf:pdf/Sorbello2014.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Keywords                 = {Humanoid Robot; Humanoid Robot Interaction; Life Support Empathic Robot; Telenoid},
  Language                 = {en},
  Reviewed                 = {Y}
}
Kaiko Kuwamura, Ryuji Yamazaki, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Elderly Care Using Teleoperated Android Telenoid", In The 9th World Conference of Gerontechnology, vol. 13, no. 2, Taipei, Taiwan, pp. 226, June, 2014.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Kuwamura2014,
  Title                    = {Elderly Care Using Teleoperated Android Telenoid},
  Author                   = {Kaiko Kuwamura and Ryuji Yamazaki and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Booktitle                = {The 9th World Conference of Gerontechnology},
  Year                     = {2014},

  Address                  = {Taipei, Taiwan},
  Month                    = Jun,
  Number                   = {2},
  Pages                    = {226},
  Volume                   = {13},

  Day                      = {18-21},
  Doi                      = {10.4017/gt.2014.13.02.091.00},
  File                     = {Kuwamura2014.pdf:pdf/Kuwamura2014.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Keywords                 = {Elderly care robot; teleoperated android; cognitive disorder},
  Language                 = {en},
  Reviewed                 = {Y},
  Url                      = {http://gerontechnology.info/index.php/journal/article/view/gt.2014.13.02.091.00}
}
Ryuji Yamazaki, Kaiko Kuwamura, Shuichi Nishio, Takashi Minato, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Activating Embodied Communication: A Case Study of People with Dementia Using a Teleoperated Android Robot", In The 9th World Conference of Gerontechnology, vol. 13, no. 2, Taipei, Taiwan, pp. 311, June, 2014.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Yamazaki2014a,
  author =    {Ryuji Yamazaki and Kaiko Kuwamura and Shuichi Nishio and Takashi Minato and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =     {Activating Embodied Communication: A Case Study of People with Dementia Using a Teleoperated Android Robot},
  booktitle = {The 9th World Conference of Gerontechnology},
  year =      {2014},
  volume =    {13},
  number =    {2},
  pages =     {311},
  address =   {Taipei, Taiwan},
  month =     Jun,
  day =       {18-21},
  doi =       {10.4017/gt.2014.13.02.166.00},
  file =      {Yamazaki2014a.pdf:pdf/Yamazaki2014a.pdf:PDF},
  keywords =  {Elderly care robot; social isolation; embodied communication; community design},
  url =       {http://gerontechnology.info/index.php/journal/article/view/gt.2014.13.02.166.00/0}
}
Kaiko Kuwamura, Shuichi Nishio, "Modality reduction for enhancing human likeliness", In Selected papers of the 50th annual convention of the Artificial Intelligence and the Simulation of Behaviour, London, UK, pp. 83-89, April, 2014.
Abstract: We proposed a method to enhance one's affection by reducing number of transferred modalities. When we dream of an artificial partner for “love", its appearance is the first thing of con- cern; a very humanlike, beautiful robot. However, we did not design a medium with a beautiful appearance but a medium which ignores the appearance and let users imagine and complete the appearance. By reducing the number of transferred modalities, we can enhance one's affection toward a robot. Moreover, not just by transmitting, but by inducing active, unconscious behavior of users, we can increase this effect. In this paper, we will introduce supporting results from our experiments and discuss further applicability of our findings.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Kuwamura2014b,
  author =          {Kaiko Kuwamura and Shuichi Nishio},
  title =           {Modality reduction for enhancing human likeliness},
  booktitle =       {Selected papers of the 50th annual convention of the Artificial Intelligence and the Simulation of Behaviour},
  year =            {2014},
  pages =           {83-89},
  address =         {London, UK},
  month =           Apr,
  abstract =        {We proposed a method to enhance one's affection by reducing number of transferred modalities. When we dream of an artificial partner for “love", its appearance is the first thing of con- cern; a very humanlike, beautiful robot. However, we did not design a medium with a beautiful appearance but a medium which ignores the appearance and let users imagine and complete the appearance. By reducing the number of transferred modalities, we can enhance one's affection toward a robot. Moreover, not just by transmitting, but by inducing active, unconscious behavior of users, we can increase this effect. In this paper, we will introduce supporting results from our experiments and discuss further applicability of our findings.},
  day =             {1-4},
  file =            {Kuwamura2014b.pdf:pdf/Kuwamura2014b.pdf:PDF},
  url =             {http://doc.gold.ac.uk/aisb50/AISB50-S16/AISB50-S16-Kuwamura-paper.pdf}
}
Junya Nakanishi, Kaiko Kuwamura, Takashi Minato, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Evoking Affection for a Communication Partner by a Robotic Communication Medium", In the First International Conference on Human-Agent Interaction, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan, pp. III-1-4, August, 2013.
Abstract: This paper reveals a new effect of robotic communication media that can function as avatars of communication partners. Users interaction with a medium may alter feelings their toward partners. The paper hypothesized that talking while hugging a robotic medium increases romantic feelings or attraction toward a partner in robot-mediated tele-communication. Our experiment used Hugvie, a human-shaped medium, for talking in a hugging state. We found that people subconsciously increased their romantic attraction toward opposite sex partners by hugging Hugvie. This resultant effect is novel because we revealed the effect of user hugging on the user's own feelings instead of being hugged by a partner.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Nakanishi2013,
  Title                    = {Evoking Affection for a Communication Partner by a Robotic Communication Medium},
  Author                   = {Junya Nakanishi and Kaiko Kuwamura and Takashi Minato and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Booktitle                = {the First International Conference on Human-Agent Interaction},
  Year                     = {2013},

  Address                  = {Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan},
  Month                    = Aug,
  Pages                    = {III-1-4},

  Abstract                 = {This paper reveals a new effect of robotic communication media that can function as avatars of communication partners. Users interaction with a medium may alter feelings their toward partners. The paper hypothesized that talking while hugging a robotic medium increases romantic feelings or attraction toward a partner in robot-mediated tele-communication. Our experiment used Hugvie, a human-shaped medium, for talking in a hugging state. We found that people subconsciously increased their romantic attraction toward opposite sex partners by hugging Hugvie. This resultant effect is novel because we revealed the effect of user hugging on the user's own feelings instead of being hugged by a partner.},
  Acknowledgement          = {This work was partially supported by {JST} (Japan Science and Technology Agency) {CREST} (Core Research of Evolutional Science & Technology) research promo-tion program.},
  Day                      = {7-9},
  File                     = {Nakanishi2013.pdf:pdf/Nakanishi2013.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Language                 = {en},
  Reviewed                 = {Y},
  Url                      = {http://hai-conference.net/ihai2013/proceedings/html/paper/paper-III-1-4.html}
}
Shuichi Nishio, Koichi Taura, Hidenobu Sumioka, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Effect of Social Interaction on Body Ownership Transfer to Teleoperated Android", In IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, Gyeonguju, Korea, pp. 565-570, August, 2013.
Abstract: Body Ownership Transfer (BOT) is an illusion that we feel external objects as parts of our own body that occurs when teleoperating android robots. In past studies, we have been investigating under what conditions this illusion occurs. However, past studies were only conducted with simple operation tasks such as by only moving the robot's hand. Does this illusion occur under much complex tasks such as having a conversation? What kind of conversation setting is required to invoke this illusion? In this paper, we examined how factors in social interaction affects occurrence of BOT. Participants had conversation using the teleoperated robot under different situations and teleoperation settings. The results revealed that BOT does occur by the act of having a conversation, and that conversation partner's presence and appropriate responses are necessary for enhancement of BOT.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Nishio2013,
  author =          {Shuichi Nishio and Koichi Taura and Hidenobu Sumioka and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =           {Effect of Social Interaction on Body Ownership Transfer to Teleoperated Android},
  booktitle =       {{IEEE} International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication},
  year =            {2013},
  pages =           {565-570},
  address =         {Gyeonguju, Korea},
  month =           Aug,
  abstract =        {Body Ownership Transfer (BOT) is an illusion that we feel external objects as parts of our own body that occurs when teleoperating android robots. In past studies, we have been investigating under what conditions this illusion occurs. However, past studies were only conducted with simple operation tasks such as by only moving the robot's hand. Does this illusion occur under much complex tasks such as having a conversation? What kind of conversation setting is required to invoke this illusion? In this paper, we examined how factors in social interaction affects occurrence of BOT. Participants had conversation using the teleoperated robot under different situations and teleoperation settings. The results revealed that BOT does occur by the act of having a conversation, and that conversation partner's presence and appropriate responses are necessary for enhancement of BOT.},
  day =             {26-29},
  doi =             {10.1109/ROMAN.2013.6628539},
  file =            {Nishio2013.pdf:pdf/Nishio2013.pdf:PDF},
}
Kaiko Kuwamura, Kurima Sakai, Takashi Minato, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Hugvie: A medium that fosters love", In IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, Gyeongju, Korea, pp. 70-75, August, 2013.
Abstract: We introduce a communication medium that en- courages users to fall in love with their counterparts. Hugvie, the huggable tele-presence medium, enables users to feel like hugging their counterparts while chatting. In this paper, we report that when a participant talks to his communication partner during their first encounter while hugging Hugvie, he mistakenly feels as if they are establishing a good relationship and that he is being loved rather than just being liked.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Kuwamura2013,
  Title                    = {Hugvie: A medium that fosters love},
  Author                   = {Kaiko Kuwamura and Kurima Sakai and Takashi Minato and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Booktitle                = {{IEEE} International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication},
  Year                     = {2013},

  Address                  = {Gyeongju, Korea},
  Month                    = Aug,
  Pages                    = {70-75},

  Abstract                 = {We introduce a communication medium that en- courages users to fall in love with their counterparts. Hugvie, the huggable tele-presence medium, enables users to feel like hugging their counterparts while chatting. In this paper, we report that when a participant talks to his communication partner during their first encounter while hugging Hugvie, he mistakenly feels as if they are establishing a good relationship and that he is being loved rather than just being liked.},
  Acknowledgement          = {This research was supported by JST, CREST.},
  Day                      = {26-29},
  Doi                      = {10.1109/ROMAN.2013.6628533},
  File                     = {Kuwamura2013.pdf:pdf/Kuwamura2013.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Language                 = {en},
  Reviewed                 = {Y}
}
Hidenobu Sumioka, Kensuke Koda, Shuichi Nishio, Takashi Minato, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Revisiting ancient design of human form for communication avatar: Design considerations from chronological development of Dogu", In IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, Gyeongju, Korea, pp. 726-731, August, 2013.
Abstract: Robot avatar systems give the feeling we share a space with people who are actually at a distant location. Since our cognitive system specializes in recognizing a human, avatars of the distant people can make us strongly feel that we share space with them, provided that their appearance has been designed to sufficiently resemble humans. In this paper, we investigate the minimal requirements of robot avatars for distant people to feel their presence, Toward this aim, we give an overview of the chronological development of Dogu, which are human figurines made in ancient Japan. This survey of the Dogu shows that the torso, not the face, was considered the primary element for representing a human. It also suggests that some body parts can be represented in a simple form. Following the development of Dogu, we also use a conversation task to examine what kind of body representation is necessary to feel a distant person's presence. The experimental results show that the forms for the torso and head are required to enhance this feeling, while other body parts have less impact. We discuss the connection between our findings and an avatar's facial expression and motion.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Sumioka2013b,
  author =          {Hidenobu Sumioka and Kensuke Koda and Shuichi Nishio and Takashi Minato and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =           {Revisiting ancient design of human form for communication avatar: Design considerations from chronological development of Dogu},
  booktitle =       {{IEEE} International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication},
  year =            {2013},
  pages =           {726-731},
  address =         {Gyeongju, Korea},
  month =           Aug,
  abstract =        {Robot avatar systems give the feeling we share a space with people who are actually at a distant location. Since our cognitive system specializes in recognizing a human, avatars of the distant people can make us strongly feel that we share space with them, provided that their appearance has been designed to sufficiently resemble humans. In this paper, we investigate the minimal requirements of robot avatars for distant people to feel their presence, Toward this aim, we give an overview of the chronological development of Dogu, which are human figurines made in ancient Japan. This survey of the Dogu shows that the torso, not the face, was considered the primary element for representing a human. It also suggests that some body parts can be represented in a simple form. Following the development of Dogu, we also use a conversation task to examine what kind of body representation is necessary to feel a distant person's presence. The experimental results show that the forms for the torso and head are required to enhance this feeling, while other body parts have less impact. We discuss the connection between our findings and an avatar's facial expression and motion.},
  day =             {26-29},
  doi =             {10.1109/ROMAN.2013.6628399},
  file =            {Sumioka2013b.pdf:pdf/Sumioka2013b.pdf:PDF},
}
Christian Becker-Asano, Severin Gustorff, Kai Oliver Arras, Kohei Ogawa, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Bernhard Nebe, "Robot Embodiment, Operator Modality, and Social Interaction in Tele-Existence: A Project Outline", In 8th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, National Museum of Emerging Science and innovation (Miraikan), Tokyo, pp. 79-80, March, 2013.
Abstract: This paper outlines our ongoing project, which aims to investigate the effects of robot embodiment and operator modality on an operator's task efficiency and concomitant level of copresence in remote social interaction. After a brief introductionto related work has been given, five research questions are presented. We discuss how these relate to our choice of the two robotic embodiments "DARYL" and "Geminoid F" and the two operator modalities “console interface" and “head-mounted display". Finally, we postulate that the usefulness of one operator modality over the other will depend on the type of situation an operator has to deal with. This hypothesis is currently being investigated empirically using DARYL at Freiburg University
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Becker-Asano2013,
  author =          {Christian Becker-Asano and Severin Gustorff and Kai Oliver Arras and Kohei Ogawa and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro and Bernhard Nebe},
  title =           {Robot Embodiment, Operator Modality, and Social Interaction in Tele-Existence: A Project Outline},
  booktitle =       {8th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction},
  year =            {2013},
  pages =           {79-80},
  address =         {National Museum of Emerging Science and innovation (Miraikan), Tokyo},
  month =           Mar,
  abstract =        {This paper outlines our ongoing project, which aims to investigate the effects of robot embodiment and operator modality on an operator's task efficiency and concomitant level of copresence in remote social interaction. After a brief introductionto related work has been given, five research questions are presented. We discuss how these relate to our choice of the two robotic embodiments "DARYL" and "Geminoid F" and the two operator modalities “console interface" and “head-mounted display". Finally, we postulate that the usefulness of one operator modality over the other will depend on the type of situation an operator has to deal with. This hypothesis is currently being investigated empirically using DARYL at Freiburg University},
  day =             {3-6},
  doi =             {10.1109/HRI.2013.6483510},
  file =            {Becker-Asano2013.pdf:pdf/Becker-Asano2013.pdf:PDF},
  keywords =        {Tele-existence; Copresence; Tele-robotic; Social robotics},
  url =             {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6483510}
}
Rosario Sorbello, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Antonio Chella, Shuichi Nishio, Giovan Battista Presti, Marcello Giardina, "Telenoid mediated ACT Protocol to Increase Acceptance of Disease among Siblings of Autistic Children", In HRI2013 Workshop on Design of Humanlikeness in HRI : from uncanny valley to minimal design, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 26, March, 2013.
Abstract: We introduce a novel research proposal project aimed to build a robotic setup in which the Telenoid[1] is used as therapist for the sibling of children with autism. Many existing research studies have shown good results relating to the important impact of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)[2] applied to siblings of children with autism. The overall behaviors of the siblings may potentially benefit from treatment with a humanoid robot therapist instead of a real one. In particular in the present study, Telenoid humanoid robot[3] is used as therapist to achieve a specific therapeutic objective: the acceptance of diversity from the sibling of children with autism. In the proposed architecture, the Telenoid acts[4] in teleoperated mode[5] during the learning phase, while it becomes more and more autonomous during the working phase with patients. A goal of the research is to improve siblings tolerance and acceptance towards their brothers. The use of ACT[6] will reinforce the acceptance of diversity and it will create a psicological flexibilty along the dimension of diversity. In the present article, we briefly introduce Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) as a clinical model and its theoretical foundations (Relational Frame Theory). We then explain the six core processes of Hexaflex model of ACT adapted to Telenoid behaviors acting as humanoid robotic therapist. Finally, we present an experimental example about how Telenoid could apply the six processes[7] of hexaflex model of ACT to the patient during its human-humanoid interaction (HHI) in order to realize an applied clinical behavior analysis[8] that increase in the sibling their acceptance of brother' disease.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Sorbello2013,
  author =    {Rosario Sorbello and Hiroshi Ishiguro and Antonio Chella and Shuichi Nishio and Giovan Battista Presti and Marcello Giardina},
  title =     {Telenoid mediated {ACT} Protocol to Increase Acceptance of Disease among Siblings of Autistic Children},
  booktitle = {{HRI}2013 Workshop on Design of Humanlikeness in {HRI} : from uncanny valley to minimal design},
  year =      {2013},
  pages =     {26},
  address =   {Tokyo, Japan},
  month =     Mar,
  abstract =  {We introduce a novel research proposal project aimed to build a robotic setup in which the Telenoid[1] is used as therapist for the sibling of children with autism. Many existing research studies have shown good results relating to the important impact of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)[2] applied to siblings of children with autism. The overall behaviors of the siblings may potentially benefit from treatment with a humanoid robot therapist instead of a real one. In particular in the present study, Telenoid humanoid robot[3] is used as therapist to achieve a specific therapeutic objective: the acceptance of diversity from the sibling of children with autism. In the proposed architecture, the Telenoid acts[4] in teleoperated mode[5] during the learning phase, while it becomes more and more autonomous during the working phase with patients. A goal of the research is to improve siblings tolerance and acceptance towards their brothers. The use of ACT[6] will reinforce the acceptance of diversity and it will create a psicological flexibilty along the dimension of diversity. In the present article, we briefly introduce Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) as a clinical model and its theoretical foundations (Relational Frame Theory). We then explain the six core processes of Hexaflex model of ACT adapted to Telenoid behaviors acting as humanoid robotic therapist. Finally, we present an experimental example about how Telenoid could apply the six processes[7] of hexaflex model of ACT to the patient during its human-humanoid interaction (HHI) in order to realize an applied clinical behavior analysis[8] that increase in the sibling their acceptance of brother' disease.},
  day =       {3},
  file =      {Sorbello2013.pdf:pdf/Sorbello2013.pdf:PDF},
}
Shuichi Nishio, Koichi Taura, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Regulating Emotion by Facial Feedback from Teleoperated Android Robot", In International Conference on Social Robotics, Chengdu, China, pp. 388-397, October, 2012.
Abstract: In this paper, we experimentally examined whether facial expression changes in teleoperated androids can affect and regulate operators' emotion, based on the facial feedback theory of emotion and the body ownership transfer phenomena to teleoperated android robot. We created a conversational situation where participants felt anger and, during the conversation, the android's facial expression were automatically changed. We examined whether such changes affected the operator emotions. As a result, we found that when one can well operate the robot, the operator's emotional states are affected by the android's facial expression changes.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Nishio2012b,
  author =    {Shuichi Nishio and Koichi Taura and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =     {Regulating Emotion by Facial Feedback from Teleoperated Android Robot},
  booktitle = {International Conference on Social Robotics},
  year =      {2012},
  pages =     {388-397},
  address =   {Chengdu, China},
  month =     Oct,
  abstract =  {In this paper, we experimentally examined whether facial expression changes in teleoperated androids can affect and regulate operators' emotion, based on the facial feedback theory of emotion and the body ownership transfer phenomena to teleoperated android robot. We created a conversational situation where participants felt anger and, during the conversation, the android's facial expression were automatically changed. We examined whether such changes affected the operator emotions. As a result, we found that when one can well operate the robot, the operator's emotional states are affected by the android's facial expression changes.},
  day =       {29-31},
  doi =       {10.1007/978-3-642-34103-8_39},
  file =      {Nishio2012b.pdf:pdf/Nishio2012b.pdf:PDF},
  url =       {http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-34103-8_39}
}
Shuichi Nishio, Tetsuya Watanabe, Kohei Ogawa, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Body Ownership Transfer to Teleoperated Android Robot", In International Conference on Social Robotics, Chengdu, China, pp. 398-407, October, 2012.
Abstract: Teleoperators of android robots occasionally feel as if the robotic bodies are extensions of their own. When others touch the tele-operated android, even without tactile feedback, some operators feel as if they themselves have been touched. In the past, a similar phenomenon named “Rubber Hand Illusion" have been studied for its reflection of a three-way interaction among vision, touch and proprioception. In this study, we examined whether a similar interaction occurs when replacing a tactile sensation with android robot teleoperation; that is, whether the interaction among vision, motion and proprioception occurs. The result showed that when the operator and the android motions are synchronized, operators feel as if their sense of body ownership is transferred to the android robot.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Nishio2012a,
  author =    {Shuichi Nishio and Tetsuya Watanabe and Kohei Ogawa and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =     {Body Ownership Transfer to Teleoperated Android Robot},
  booktitle = {International Conference on Social Robotics},
  year =      {2012},
  pages =     {398-407},
  address =   {Chengdu, China},
  month =     Oct,
  abstract =  {Teleoperators of android robots occasionally feel as if the robotic bodies are extensions of their own. When others touch the tele-operated android, even without tactile feedback, some operators feel as if they themselves have been touched. In the past, a similar phenomenon named “Rubber Hand Illusion" have been studied for its reflection of a three-way interaction among vision, touch and proprioception. In this study, we examined whether a similar interaction occurs when replacing a tactile sensation with android robot teleoperation; that is, whether the interaction among vision, motion and proprioception occurs. The result showed that when the operator and the android motions are synchronized, operators feel as if their sense of body ownership is transferred to the android robot.},
  day =       {29-31},
  doi =       {10.1007/978-3-642-34103-8_40},
  file =      {Nishio2012a.pdf:pdf/Nishio2012a.pdf:PDF},
  url =       {http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-34103-8_40}
}
Martin Cooney, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Recognizing Affection for a Touch-based Interaction with a Humanoid Robot", In IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Vilamoura, Algarve, Portugal, pp. 1420-1427, October, 2012.
Abstract: In order to facilitate integration into domestic and public environments, companion robots can seek to communicate in a familiar, socially intelligent´ manner, recognizing typical behaviors which people direct toward them. One important type of behavior to recognize is the displaying and seeking of affection, which is fundamentally associated with the modality of touch. This paper identifies how people communicate affection through touching a humanoid robot appearance, and reports on the development of a recognition system exploring the modalities of touch and vision. Results of evaluation indicate the proposed system can recognize people's affectionate behavior in the designated context.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Cooney2012a,
  Title                    = {Recognizing Affection for a Touch-based Interaction with a Humanoid Robot},
  Author                   = {Martin Cooney and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Booktitle                = {{IEEE/RSJ} International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems},
  Year                     = {2012},

  Address                  = {Vilamoura, Algarve, Portugal},
  Month                    = Oct,
  Pages                    = {1420--1427},

  Abstract                 = {In order to facilitate integration into domestic and public environments, companion robots can seek to communicate in a familiar, socially intelligent´ manner, recognizing typical behaviors which people direct toward them. One important type of behavior to recognize is the displaying and seeking of affection, which is fundamentally associated with the modality of touch. This paper identifies how people communicate affection through touching a humanoid robot appearance, and reports on the development of a recognition system exploring the modalities of touch and vision. Results of evaluation indicate the proposed system can recognize people's affectionate behavior in the designated context.},
  Acknowledgement          = {We'd like to thank Takashi Minato for help with the skin sensors, and everyone else who supported this project.},
  Day                      = {7-12},
  File                     = {Cooney2012a.pdf:Cooney2012a.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Reviewed                 = {Y}
}
Ryuji Yamazaki, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Takashi Minato, Marco Nørskov, Nobu Ishiguro, Masaru Nishikawa, Tsutomu Fujinami, "Social Inclusion of Senior Citizens by a Teleoperated Android : Toward Inter-generational TeleCommunity Creation", In 2012 IEEE International Workshop on Assistance and Service Robotics in a Human Environment, International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Vilamoura, Algarve, Portugal, pp. 53-58, October, 2012.
Abstract: As populations continue to age, there is a growing need for assistive technologies that help senior citizens maintain their autonomy and enjoy their lives. We explore the potential of teleoperated androids, which are embodied telecommunication media with humanlike appearances. Our exploratory study focused on the social aspects of Telenoid, a teleoperated android designed as a minimalistic human, which might facilitate communication between senior citizens and its operators. We conducted cross-cultural field trials in Japan and Denmark by introducing Telenoid into care facilities and the private homes of seniors to observe how they responded to it. In Japan, we set up a teleoperation system in an elementary school and investigated how it shaped communication through the internet between the elderly in a care facility and the children who acted as teleoperators. In both countries, the elderly commonly assumed positive attitudes toward Telenoid and imaginatively developed various dialogue strategies. Telenoid lowered the barriers for the children as operators for communicating with demented seniors so that they became more relaxed to participate in and positively continue conversations using Telenoid. Our results suggest that its minimalistic human design is inclusive for seniors with or without dementia and facilitates inter-generational communication, which may be expanded to a social network of trans-national supportive relationships among all generations.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Yamazaki2012d,
  author =    {Ryuji Yamazaki and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro and Takashi Minato and Marco N\orskov and Nobu Ishiguro and Masaru Nishikawa and Tsutomu Fujinami},
  title =     {Social Inclusion of Senior Citizens by a Teleoperated Android : Toward Inter-generational TeleCommunity Creation},
  booktitle = {2012 {IEEE} International Workshop on Assistance and Service Robotics in a Human Environment, International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems},
  year =      {2012},
  pages =     {53--58},
  address =   {Vilamoura, Algarve, Portugal},
  month =     Oct,
  abstract =  {As populations continue to age, there is a growing need for assistive technologies that help senior citizens maintain their autonomy and enjoy their lives. We explore the potential of teleoperated androids, which are embodied telecommunication media with humanlike appearances. Our exploratory study focused on the social aspects of Telenoid, a teleoperated android designed as a minimalistic human, which might facilitate communication between senior citizens and its operators. We conducted cross-cultural field trials in Japan and Denmark by introducing Telenoid into care facilities and the private homes of seniors to observe how they responded to it. In Japan, we set up a teleoperation system in an elementary school and investigated how it shaped communication through the internet between the elderly in a care facility and the children who acted as teleoperators. In both countries, the elderly commonly assumed positive attitudes toward Telenoid and imaginatively developed various dialogue strategies. Telenoid lowered the barriers for the children as operators for communicating with demented seniors so that they became more relaxed to participate in and positively continue conversations using Telenoid. Our results suggest that its minimalistic human design is inclusive for seniors with or without dementia and facilitates inter-generational communication, which may be expanded to a social network of trans-national supportive relationships among all generations.},
  day =       {7-12},
  file =      {Yamazaki2012d.pdf:Yamazaki2012d.pdf:PDF},
}
Ryuji Yamazaki, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Marco Nørskov, Nobu Ishiguro, Giuseppe Balistreri, "Social Acceptance of a Teleoperated Android: Field Study on Elderly's Engagement with an Embodied Communication Medium in Denmark", In International Conference on Social Robotics, Chengdu, China, pp. 428-437, October, 2012.
Abstract: We explored the potential of teleoperated android robots, which are embodied telecommunication media with humanlike appearances, and how they affect people in the real world when they are employed to express a telepresence and a sense of ‘being there'. In Denmark, our exploratory study focused on the social aspects of Telenoid, a teleoperated android, which might facilitate communication between senior citizens and Telenoid's operator. After applying it to the elderly in their homes, we found that the elderly assumed positive attitudes toward Telenoid, and their positivity and strong attachment to its huggable minimalistic human design were cross-culturally shared in Denmark and Japan. Contrary to the negative reactions by non-users in media reports, our result suggests that teleoperated androids can be accepted by the elderly as a kind of universal design medium for social inclusion.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Yamazaki2012c,
  author =          {Ryuji Yamazaki and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro and Marco N\orskov and Nobu Ishiguro and Giuseppe Balistreri},
  title =           {Social Acceptance of a Teleoperated Android: Field Study on Elderly's Engagement with an Embodied Communication Medium in Denmark},
  booktitle =       {International Conference on Social Robotics},
  year =            {2012},
  pages =           {428-437},
  address =         {Chengdu, China},
  month =           Oct,
  abstract =        {We explored the potential of teleoperated android robots, which are embodied telecommunication media with humanlike appearances, and how they affect people in the real world when they are employed to express a telepresence and a sense of ‘being there'. In Denmark, our exploratory study focused on the social aspects of Telenoid, a teleoperated android, which might facilitate communication between senior citizens and Telenoid's operator. After applying it to the elderly in their homes, we found that the elderly assumed positive attitudes toward Telenoid, and their positivity and strong attachment to its huggable minimalistic human design were cross-culturally shared in Denmark and Japan. Contrary to the negative reactions by non-users in media reports, our result suggests that teleoperated androids can be accepted by the elderly as a kind of universal design medium for social inclusion.},
  day =             {29-31},
  doi =             {10.1007/978-3-642-34103-8_43},
  file =            {Yamazaki2012c.pdf:pdf/Yamazaki2012c.pdf:PDF},
  keywords =        {android;teleoperation;minimal design;communication;embodiment;inclusion;acceptability;elderly care},
  url =             {http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-34103-8_43}
}
Martin Cooney, Francesco Zanlungo, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Designing a Flying Humanoid Robot (FHR): Effects of Flight on Interactive Communication", In IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, Paris, France, pp. 364-371, September, 2012.
Abstract: This research constitutes an initial investigation into key issues which arise in designing a flying humanoid robot (FHR), with a focus on human-robot interaction (HRI). The humanoid form offers an interface for natural communication; flight offers excellent mobility. Combining both will yield companion robots capable of approaching, accompanying, and communicating naturally with humans in difficult environments. Problematic is how such a robot should best fly around humans, and what effect the robot's flight will have on a person in terms of paralinguistic (non-verbal) cues. To answer these questions, we propose an extension to existing proxemics theory (“z-proxemics") and predict how typical humanoid flight motions will be perceived. Data obtained from participants watching animated sequences are analyzed to check our predictions. The paper also reports on the building of a flying humanoid robot, which we will use in interactions.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Cooney2012b,
  author =          {Martin Cooney and Francesco Zanlungo and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =           {Designing a Flying Humanoid Robot ({FHR}): Effects of Flight on Interactive Communication},
  booktitle =       {{IEEE} International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication},
  year =            {2012},
  pages =           {364--371},
  address =         {Paris, France},
  month =           Sep,
  abstract =        {This research constitutes an initial investigation into key issues which arise in designing a flying humanoid robot ({FHR}), with a focus on human-robot interaction ({HRI}). The humanoid form offers an interface for natural communication; flight offers excellent mobility. Combining both will yield companion robots capable of approaching, accompanying, and communicating naturally with humans in difficult environments. Problematic is how such a robot should best fly around humans, and what effect the robot's flight will have on a person in terms of paralinguistic (non-verbal) cues. To answer these questions, we propose an extension to existing proxemics theory (“z-proxemics") and predict how typical humanoid flight motions will be perceived. Data obtained from participants watching animated sequences are analyzed to check our predictions. The paper also reports on the building of a flying humanoid robot, which we will use in interactions.},
  day =             {9-13},
  doi =             {10.1109/ROMAN.2012.6343780},
  file =            {Cooney2012b.pdf:Cooney2012b.pdf:PDF},
}
Shuichi Nishio, Kohei Ogawa, Yasuhiro Kanakogi, Shoji Itakura, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Do robot appearance and speech affect people's attitude? Evaluation through the Ultimatum Game", In IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, Paris, France, pp. 809-814, September, 2012.
Abstract: In this study, we examine the factors with which robots are recognized as social beings. Participants joined ses- sions of the Ultimatum Game, a procedure commonly used for examining attitudes toward others in the fields of economics and social psychology. Several agents differing in their appearances are tested with speech stimuli that are expected to induce a mentalizing effect toward the agents. As a result, we found that while appearance itself did not show significant difference in the attitudes, the mentalizing stimuli affected the attitudes in different ways depending on robots' appearances. This results showed that such elements as simple conversation with the agents and their appearance are important factors so that robots are treated more humanlike and as social beings.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Nishio2012,
  author =          {Shuichi Nishio and Kohei Ogawa and Yasuhiro Kanakogi and Shoji Itakura and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =           {Do robot appearance and speech affect people's attitude? Evaluation through the {U}ltimatum {G}ame},
  booktitle =       {{IEEE} International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication},
  year =            {2012},
  pages =           {809--814},
  address =         {Paris, France},
  month =           Sep,
  abstract =        {In this study, we examine the factors with which robots are recognized as social beings. Participants joined ses- sions of the Ultimatum Game, a procedure commonly used for examining attitudes toward others in the fields of economics and social psychology. Several agents differing in their appearances are tested with speech stimuli that are expected to induce a mentalizing effect toward the agents. As a result, we found that while appearance itself did not show significant difference in the attitudes, the mentalizing stimuli affected the attitudes in different ways depending on robots' appearances. This results showed that such elements as simple conversation with the agents and their appearance are important factors so that robots are treated more humanlike and as social beings.},
  day =             {9-13},
  doi =             {10.1109/ROMAN.2012.6343851},
  file =            {Nishio2012.pdf:Nishio2012.pdf:PDF},
}
Takashi Minato, Hidenobu Sumioka, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Studying the Influence of Handheld Robotic Media on Social Communications", In the RO-MAN 2012 workshop on social robotic telepresence, Paris, France, pp. 15-16, September, 2012.
Abstract: This paper describes research issues on social robotic telepresence using “Elfoid". It is a portable tele-operated humanoid that is designed to transfer individuals' presence to remote places at anytime, anywhere, to provide a new communication style in which individuals talk with persons in remote locations in such a way that they feel each other's presence. However, it is not known how people adapt to the new communication style and how social communications change by Elfoid. Investigating the influence of Elfoid on social communications are very interesting in the view of social robotic telepresence. This paper introduces Elfoid and shows the position of our studies in social robotic telepresence.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Minato2012c,
  author =    {Takashi Minato and Hidenobu Sumioka and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =     {Studying the Influence of Handheld Robotic Media on Social Communications},
  booktitle = {the {RO-MAN} 2012 workshop on social robotic telepresence},
  year =      {2012},
  pages =     {15--16},
  address =   {Paris, France},
  month =     Sep,
  abstract =  {This paper describes research issues on social robotic telepresence using “Elfoid". It is a portable tele-operated humanoid that is designed to transfer individuals' presence to remote places at anytime, anywhere, to provide a new communication style in which individuals talk with persons in remote locations in such a way that they feel each other's presence. However, it is not known how people adapt to the new communication style and how social communications change by Elfoid. Investigating the influence of Elfoid on social communications are very interesting in the view of social robotic telepresence. This paper introduces Elfoid and shows the position of our studies in social robotic telepresence.},
  day =       {9-13},
  file =      {Minato2012c.pdf:Minato2012c.pdf:PDF},
}
Kohei Ogawa, Koichi Taura, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Effect of perspective change in body ownership transfer to teleoperated android robot", In IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, Paris, France, pp. 1072-1077, September, 2012.
Abstract: We previously investigated body ownership transfer to a teleoperated android body caused by motion synchronization between the robot and its operator. Although visual feedback is the only information provided from the robot, due to body ownership transfer, some operators feel as if they were touched when the robot's body was touched. This illusion can help operators transfer their presence to the robotic body during teleoperation. By enhancing this phenomenon, we can improve our communication interface and the quality of the interaction between operator and interlocutor. In this paper, we examined how the change in the operator's perspective affects the body ownership transfer during teleoperation. Based on past studies on the rubber hand illusion, we hypothesized that the perspective change will suppress the body owner transfer. Our results, however, showed that in any perspective condition, the participants felt the body ownership transfer. This shows that its generation process differs to teleoperated androids and the rubber hand illusion.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Ogawa2012c,
  author =          {Kohei Ogawa and Koichi Taura and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =           {Effect of perspective change in body ownership transfer to teleoperated android robot},
  booktitle =       {{IEEE} International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication},
  year =            {2012},
  pages =           {1072--1077},
  address =         {Paris, France},
  month =           Sep,
  abstract =        {We previously investigated body ownership transfer to a teleoperated android body caused by motion synchronization between the robot and its operator. Although visual feedback is the only information provided from the robot, due to body ownership transfer, some operators feel as if they were touched when the robot's body was touched. This illusion can help operators transfer their presence to the robotic body during teleoperation. By enhancing this phenomenon, we can improve our communication interface and the quality of the interaction between operator and interlocutor. In this paper, we examined how the change in the operator's perspective affects the body ownership transfer during teleoperation. Based on past studies on the rubber hand illusion, we hypothesized that the perspective change will suppress the body owner transfer. Our results, however, showed that in any perspective condition, the participants felt the body ownership transfer. This shows that its generation process differs to teleoperated androids and the rubber hand illusion.},
  day =             {9-13},
  doi =             {10.1109/ROMAN.2012.6343891},
  file =            {Ogawa2012c.pdf:Ogawa2012c.pdf:PDF},
}
Ilona Straub, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "From an Object to a Subject -- Transitions of an Android Robot into a Social Being", In IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, Paris, France, pp. 821-826, September, 2012.
Abstract: What are the characteristics that make something appear as a social entity? Is sociality limited to human beings? The following article will deal with the borders of sociality and the characterizations of animating a physical object (here: android robot) to a living being. The transition is attributed during interactive encounters. We will introduce implications of an ethnomethodological analysis which shows characteristics of transitions in social attribution towards an android robot, which is treated and perceived gradually shifting from an object to a social entity. These characteristics should a) fill the gap in current anthropological and sociological research, dealing with the limits and characteristics of social entities, and b) contribute to the discussion of specifics in human-android interaction compared to human-human interaction.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Straub2012,
  author =          {Ilona Straub and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =           {From an Object to a Subject -- Transitions of an Android Robot into a Social Being},
  booktitle =       {{IEEE} International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication},
  year =            {2012},
  pages =           {821--826},
  address =         {Paris, France},
  month =           Sep,
  abstract =        {What are the characteristics that make something appear as a social entity? Is sociality limited to human beings? The following article will deal with the borders of sociality and the characterizations of animating a physical object (here: android robot) to a living being. The transition is attributed during interactive encounters. We will introduce implications of an ethnomethodological analysis which shows characteristics of transitions in social attribution towards an android robot, which is treated and perceived gradually shifting from an object to a social entity. These characteristics should a) fill the gap in current anthropological and sociological research, dealing with the limits and characteristics of social entities, and b) contribute to the discussion of specifics in human-android interaction compared to human-human interaction.},
  day =             {9-13},
  doi =             {10.1109/ROMAN.2012.6343853},
  file =            {Straub2012.pdf:Strabu2012.pdf:PDF},
}
Hidenobu Sumioka, Shuichi Nishio, Erina Okamoto, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Isolation of physical traits and conversational content for personality design", Poster presentation at IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, Paris, France, pp. 596-601, September, 2012.
Abstract: In this paper, we propose the "Doppel teleoperation system,'' which isolates several physical traits from a speaker, to investigate how personal information is conveyed to others during conversation. An underlying problem on designing personality in social robots is that it remains unclear how humans judge the personalities of conversation partners. With the Doppel system, for each of the communication channels to be transferred, one can choose it in its original form or in the one generated by the system. For example, voice and body motions can be replaced by the Doppel system while preserving the speech content. This allows us to analyze the individual effects of the physical traits of the speaker and the content in the speaker's speech on the identification of personality. This selectivity of personal traits provides a useful approach to investigate which information conveys our personality through conversation. To show the potential of our system, we experimentally tested how much the conversation content conveys the personality of speakers to interlocutors without any of their physical traits. Preliminary results show that although interlocutors have difficulty identifying speakers only using conversational contents, they can recognize their acquaintances when their acquaintances are the speakers. We point out some potential physical traits to convey personality
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Sumioka2012d,
  author =          {Hidenobu Sumioka and Shuichi Nishio and Erina Okamoto and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =           {Isolation of physical traits and conversational content for personality design},
  booktitle =       {{IEEE} International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication},
  year =            {2012},
  pages =           {596--601},
  address =         {Paris, France},
  month =           Sep,
  abstract =        {In this paper, we propose the "Doppel teleoperation system,'' which isolates several physical traits from a speaker, to investigate how personal information is conveyed to others during conversation. An underlying problem on designing personality in social robots is that it remains unclear how humans judge the personalities of conversation partners. With the Doppel system, for each of the communication channels to be transferred, one can choose it in its original form or in the one generated by the system. For example, voice and body motions can be replaced by the Doppel system while preserving the speech content. This allows us to analyze the individual effects of the physical traits of the speaker and the content in the speaker's speech on the identification of personality. This selectivity of personal traits provides a useful approach to investigate which information conveys our personality through conversation. To show the potential of our system, we experimentally tested how much the conversation content conveys the personality of speakers to interlocutors without any of their physical traits. Preliminary results show that although interlocutors have difficulty identifying speakers only using conversational contents, they can recognize their acquaintances when their acquaintances are the speakers. We point out some potential physical traits to convey personality},
  day =             {9-13},
  doi =             {10.1109/ROMAN.2012.6343816},
  file =            {Sumioka2012d.pdf:Sumioka2012d.pdf:PDF},
}
Hidenobu Sumioka, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Teleoperated android for mediated communication : body ownership, personality distortion, and minimal human design", In the RO-MAN 2012 workshop on social robotic telepresence, Paris, France, pp. 32-39, September, 2012.
Abstract: In this paper we discuss the impact of humanlike appearance on telecommunication, giving an overview of studies with teleoperated androids. We show that, due to humanlike appearance, teleoperated androids do not only affect interlocutors communicating with them but also teleoperators controlling them in another location. They enhance teleoperator's feeling of telepresence by inducing a sense of ownership over their body parts. It is also pointed out that a mismatch between an android and a teleoperator in appearance distorts the teleoperator's personality to be conveyed to an interlocutor. To overcome this problem, the concept of minimal human likeness design is introduced. We demonstrate that a new teleoperated android developed with the concept reduces the distortion in telecommunication. Finally, some research issues are discussed on a sense of ownership over telerobot's body, minimal human likeness design, and interface design.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Sumioka2012c,
  author =          {Hidenobu Sumioka and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =           {Teleoperated android for mediated communication : body ownership, personality distortion, and minimal human design},
  booktitle =       {the {RO-MAN} 2012 workshop on social robotic telepresence},
  year =            {2012},
  pages =           {32--39},
  address =         {Paris, France},
  month =           Sep,
  abstract =        {In this paper we discuss the impact of humanlike appearance on telecommunication, giving an overview of studies with teleoperated androids. We show that, due to humanlike appearance, teleoperated androids do not only affect interlocutors communicating with them but also teleoperators controlling them in another location. They enhance teleoperator's feeling of telepresence by inducing a sense of ownership over their body parts. It is also pointed out that a mismatch between an android and a teleoperator in appearance distorts the teleoperator's personality to be conveyed to an interlocutor. To overcome this problem, the concept of minimal human likeness design is introduced. We demonstrate that a new teleoperated android developed with the concept reduces the distortion in telecommunication. Finally, some research issues are discussed on a sense of ownership over telerobot's body, minimal human likeness design, and interface design.},
  day =             {9-13},
  file =            {Sumioka2012c.pdf:Sumioka2012c.pdf:PDF},
}
Kaiko Kuwamura, Takashi Minato, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Personality Distortion in Communication through Teleoperated Robots", In IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, Paris, France, pp. 49-54, September, 2012.
Abstract: Recent research has focused on such physical communication media as teleoperated robots, which provide a feeling of being with people in remote places. Recent invented media resemble cute animals or imaginary creatures that quickly attract attention. However, such appearances could distort tele-communications because they are different from human beings. This paper studies the effect on the speaker's personality that is transmitted through physical media by regarding appearances as a function that transmits the speaker's information. Although communication media's capability to transmit information reportedly influences conversations in many aspects, the effect of appearances remains unclear. To reveal the effect of appearance, we compared three appearances of communication media: stuffed-bear teleoperated robot, human-like teleoperated robot, and video chat. Our results show that communication media whose appearance greatly differs from that of the speaker distorts the personality perceived by interlocutors. This paper suggests that the design of the appearance of physical communication media needs to be carefully selected.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Kuwamura2012,
  Title                    = {Personality Distortion in Communication through Teleoperated Robots},
  Author                   = {Kaiko Kuwamura and Takashi Minato and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Booktitle                = {{IEEE} International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication},
  Year                     = {2012},

  Address                  = {Paris, France},
  Month                    = Sep,
  Pages                    = {49--54},

  Abstract                 = {Recent research has focused on such physical communication media as teleoperated robots, which provide a feeling of being with people in remote places. Recent invented media resemble cute animals or imaginary creatures that quickly attract attention. However, such appearances could distort tele-communications because they are different from human beings. This paper studies the effect on the speaker's personality that is transmitted through physical media by regarding appearances as a function that transmits the speaker's information. Although communication media's capability to transmit information reportedly influences conversations in many aspects, the effect of appearances remains unclear. To reveal the effect of appearance, we compared three appearances of communication media: stuffed-bear teleoperated robot, human-like teleoperated robot, and video chat. Our results show that communication media whose appearance greatly differs from that of the speaker distorts the personality perceived by interlocutors. This paper suggests that the design of the appearance of physical communication media needs to be carefully selected.},
  Day                      = {9-13},
  File                     = {Kuwamura2012.pdf:pdf/Kuwamura2012.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Reviewed                 = {Y}
}
Ryuji Yamazaki, Shuichi Nishio, Kohei Ogawa, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Teleoperated Android as an Embodied Communication Medium: A Case Study with Demented Elderlies in a Care Facility", In IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, Paris, France, pp. 1066-1071, September, 2012.
Abstract: Teleoperated androids, which are robots with humanlike appearances, are being produced as new media of human relationships. We explored the potential of humanoid robots and how they affect people in the real world when they are employed to express a telecommunication presence and a sense of ‘being there'. We introduced Telenoid, a teleoperated android, to a residential care facility to see how the elderly with dementia respond to it. Our exploratory study focused on the social aspects that might facilitate communication between the elderly and Telenoid's operator. Telenoid elicited positive images and interactive reactions from the elderly with mild dementia, even from those with severe cognitive impairment. They showed strong attachment to its child-like huggable design and became willing to converse with it. Our result suggests that an affectionate bond may be formed between the elderly and the android to provide the operator with easy communication to elicit responses from senior citizens.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Yamazaki2012b,
  author =    {Ryuji Yamazaki and Shuichi Nishio and Kohei Ogawa and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =     {Teleoperated Android as an Embodied Communication Medium: A Case Study with Demented Elderlies in a Care Facility},
  booktitle = {{IEEE} International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication},
  year =      {2012},
  pages =     {1066--1071},
  address =   {Paris, France},
  month =     Sep,
  abstract =  {Teleoperated androids, which are robots with humanlike appearances, are being produced as new media of human relationships. We explored the potential of humanoid robots and how they affect people in the real world when they are employed to express a telecommunication presence and a sense of ‘being there'. We introduced Telenoid, a teleoperated android, to a residential care facility to see how the elderly with dementia respond to it. Our exploratory study focused on the social aspects that might facilitate communication between the elderly and Telenoid's operator. Telenoid elicited positive images and interactive reactions from the elderly with mild dementia, even from those with severe cognitive impairment. They showed strong attachment to its child-like huggable design and became willing to converse with it. Our result suggests that an affectionate bond may be formed between the elderly and the android to provide the operator with easy communication to elicit responses from senior citizens.},
  day =       {9-13},
  file =      {Yamazaki2012b.pdf:Yamazaki2012b.pdf:PDF},
}
Antonio Chella, Haris Dindo, Rosario Sorbello, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Sing with the Telenoid", In CogSci 2012 Workshop on Teleoperated Android as a Tool for Cognitive Studies, Communication and Art, Sapporo Convention Center, pp. 16-20, August, 2012.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Chella2012,
  author =    {Antonio Chella and Haris Dindo and Rosario Sorbello and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =     {Sing with the Telenoid},
  booktitle = {{C}og{S}ci 2012 Workshop on Teleoperated Android as a Tool for Cognitive Studies, Communication and Art},
  year =      {2012},
  pages =     {16--20},
  address =   {Sapporo Convention Center},
  month =     Aug,
  day =       {1-4},
  file =      {Chella2012.pdf:Chella2012.pdf:PDF},
  keywords =  {Computer Music; Embodiment; Emotions; Imitation learning; Creativity; Human-robot Interaction},
}
Hidenobu Sumioka, Shuichi Nishio, Erina Okamoto, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Doppel Teleoperation System: Isolation of physical traits and intelligence for personality study", In Annual meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (CogSci2012), Sapporo Convention Center, pp. 2375-2380, August, 2012.
Abstract: We introduce the “Doppel teleoperation system", which isolates several physical traits from a speaker, to investigate how personal information is conveyed to other people during conversation. With the Doppel system, one can choose for each of the communication channels to be transferred whether in its original form or in the one generated by the system. For example, the voice and body motion can be replaced by the Doppel system while the speech content is preserved. This will allow us to analyze individual effects of physical traits of the speaker and content in the speaker's speech on identification of personality. This selectivity of personal traits provides us with useful approach to investigate which information conveys our personality through conversation. To show a potential of this proposed system, we conduct an experiment to test how much the content of conversation conveys the personality of speakers to interlocutors, without any physical traits of the speakers. Preliminary results show that although interlocutors have difficulty identifying their speakers only by using conversational contents, they can recognize their acquaintances when their acquaintances are the speakers. We point out some potential physical traits to convey our personality.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Sumioka2012,
  author =          {Hidenobu Sumioka and Shuichi Nishio and Erina Okamoto and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =           {Doppel Teleoperation System: Isolation of physical traits and intelligence for personality study},
  booktitle =       {Annual meeting of the Cognitive Science Society ({C}og{S}ci2012)},
  year =            {2012},
  pages =           {2375-2380},
  address =         {Sapporo Convention Center},
  month =           Aug,
  abstract =        {We introduce the “Doppel teleoperation system", which isolates several physical traits from a speaker, to investigate how personal information is conveyed to other people during conversation. With the Doppel system, one can choose for each of the communication channels to be transferred whether in its original form or in the one generated by the system. For example, the voice and body motion can be replaced by the Doppel system while the speech content is preserved. This will allow us to analyze individual effects of physical traits of the speaker and content in the speaker's speech on identification of personality. This selectivity of personal traits provides us with useful approach to investigate which information conveys our personality through conversation. To show a potential of this proposed system, we conduct an experiment to test how much the content of conversation conveys the personality of speakers to interlocutors, without any physical traits of the speakers. Preliminary results show that although interlocutors have difficulty identifying their speakers only by using conversational contents, they can recognize their acquaintances when their acquaintances are the speakers. We point out some potential physical traits to convey our personality.},
  day =             {1-4},
  file =            {Sumioka2012.pdf:Sumioka2012.pdf:PDF},
  keywords =        {social cognition; android science; human-robot interaction; personality psychology; personal presence},
  url =             {http://mindmodeling.org/cogsci2012/papers/0413/paper0413.pdf}
}
Takashi Minato, Shuichi Nishio, Kohei Ogawa, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Development of Cellphone-type Tele-operated Android", Poster presentation at The 10th Asia Pacific Conference on Computer Human Interaction, Matsue, Japan, pp. 665-666, August, 2012.
Abstract: This paper presents a newly developed portable human-like robotic avatar “Elfoid" which can be a novel communication medium in that a user can talk with another person in a remote location in such a way that they feel each other's presence. It is designed to convey individuals' presence using voice, human-like appearance, and touch. Thanks to its cellphone capability, it can be used at anytime, anywhere. The paper describes the design concept of Elfoid and argues research issues on this communication medium.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Minato2012b,
  author =    {Takashi Minato and Shuichi Nishio and Kohei Ogawa and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =     {Development of Cellphone-type Tele-operated Android},
  booktitle = {The 10th Asia Pacific Conference on Computer Human Interaction},
  year =      {2012},
  pages =     {665-666},
  address =   {Matsue, Japan},
  month =     Aug,
  abstract =  {This paper presents a newly developed portable human-like robotic avatar “Elfoid" which can be a novel communication medium in that a user can talk with another person in a remote location in such a way that they feel each other's presence. It is designed to convey individuals' presence using voice, human-like appearance, and touch. Thanks to its cellphone capability, it can be used at anytime, anywhere. The paper describes the design concept of Elfoid and argues research issues on this communication medium.},
  day =       {28-31},
  file =      {Minato2012b.pdf:Minato2012b.pdf:PDF},
  keywords =  {Communication media; minimal design; human's presence},
}
Shuichi Nishio, "Transmitting human presence with teleoperated androids: from proprioceptive transfer to elderly care", In CogSci2012 Workshop on Teleopearted Android as a Tool for Cognitive Studies, Communication and Art, Sapporo, Japan, August, 2012.
Abstract: Teleoperated androids, robots owning humanlike appearance equipped with semi-autonomous teleoperation facility, was first introduce in 2007 with the public release of Geminoid HI-1. Both its appearance that resembles the source person and its teleoperation functionality serves in making Geminoid as a research tool for seeking the nature of human presence and personality traits, tracing their origins and implementing into robots. Since the development of the first teleoperated android, we have been using them in a variety of domains, from studies on basic human natures to practical applications such as elderly care. In this talk, I will introduce some of our findings and ongoing projects.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Nishio2012d,
  author =    {Shuichi Nishio},
  title =     {Transmitting human presence with teleoperated androids: from proprioceptive transfer to elderly care},
  booktitle = {CogSci2012 Workshop on Teleopearted Android as a Tool for Cognitive Studies, Communication and Art},
  year =      {2012},
  address =   {Sapporo, Japan},
  month =     Aug,
  abstract =  {Teleoperated androids, robots owning humanlike appearance equipped with semi-autonomous teleoperation facility, was first introduce in 2007 with the public release of Geminoid HI-1. Both its appearance that resembles the source person and its teleoperation functionality serves in making Geminoid as a research tool for seeking the nature of human presence and personality traits, tracing their origins and implementing into robots. Since the development of the first teleoperated android, we have been using them in a variety of domains, from studies on basic human natures to practical applications such as elderly care. In this talk, I will introduce some of our findings and ongoing projects.},
}
Hidenobu Sumioka, Takashi Minato, Kurima Sakai, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Motion Design of an Interactive Small Humanoid Robot with Visual Illusion", In The 10th Asia Pacific Conference on Computer Human Interaction, Matsue, Japan, pp. 93-100, August, 2012.
Abstract: We propose a method that enables users to convey nonver- bal information, especially their gestures, through portable robot avatar based on illusory motion. The illusory mo- tion of head nodding is realized with blinking lights for a human-like mobile phone called Elfoid. Two blinking pat- terns of LEDs are designed based on biological motion and illusory motion from shadows. The patterns are compared to select an appropriate pattern for the illusion of motion in terms of the naturalness of movements and quick percep- tion. The result shows that illusory motions show better per- formance than biological motion. We also test whether the illusory motion of head nodding provides a positive effect compared with just blinking lights. In experiments, subjects, who are engaged in role-playing game, are asked to com- plain to Elfoids about their unpleasant situation. The results show that the subject frustration is eased by Elfoid's illusory head nodding.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Sumioka2012a,
  Title                    = {Motion Design of an Interactive Small Humanoid Robot with Visual Illusion},
  Author                   = {Hidenobu Sumioka and Takashi Minato and Kurima Sakai and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Booktitle                = {The 10th Asia Pacific Conference on Computer Human Interaction},
  Year                     = {2012},

  Address                  = {Matsue, Japan},
  Month                    = Aug,
  Pages                    = {93-100},

  Abstract                 = {We propose a method that enables users to convey nonver- bal information, especially their gestures, through portable robot avatar based on illusory motion. The illusory mo- tion of head nodding is realized with blinking lights for a human-like mobile phone called Elfoid. Two blinking pat- terns of LEDs are designed based on biological motion and illusory motion from shadows. The patterns are compared to select an appropriate pattern for the illusion of motion in terms of the naturalness of movements and quick percep- tion. The result shows that illusory motions show better per- formance than biological motion. We also test whether the illusory motion of head nodding provides a positive effect compared with just blinking lights. In experiments, subjects, who are engaged in role-playing game, are asked to com- plain to Elfoids about their unpleasant situation. The results show that the subject frustration is eased by Elfoid's illusory head nodding.},
  Day                      = {28-31},
  File                     = {Sumioka2012a.pdf:Sumioka2012a.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Keywords                 = {telecommunication; nonverbal communication; portable robot avatar; visual illusion of motion},
  Reviewed                 = {Y},
  Url                      = {http://dl.acm.org/authorize?6720741}
}
Hiroshi Ishiguro, Shuichi Nishio, Antonio Chella, Rosario Sorbello, Giuseppe Balistreri, Marcello Giardina, Carmelo Cali, "Perceptual Social Dimensions of Human-Humanoid Robot Interaction", In The 12th International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, vol. 194, Jeju International Convention Center, Korea, pp. 409-421, June, 2012.
Abstract: The present paper aims at a descriptive analysis of the main perceptual and social features of natural conditions of agent interaction, which can be specified by agent in human- humanoid robot interaction. A principled approach to human- robot interaction may be assumed to comply with the natural conditions of agents overt perceptual and social behaviour. To validate our research we used the minimalistic humanoid robot Telenoid. We have conducted human-robot interactions test with people with no prior interaction experience with robot. By administrating our questionnaire to subject after well defined experimental conditions, an analysis of significant variance corre- lation among dimensions in ordinary and goal guided contexts of interaction has been performed in order to prove that perception and believability are indicators of social interaction and increase the degree of interaction in human-humanoid interaction. The experimental results showed that Telenoid is seen from the users as an autonomous agent on its own rather than a teleoperated artificial agent and as a believable agent for its naturally acting in response to human agent actions.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Ishiguro2012,
  Title                    = {Perceptual Social Dimensions of Human-Humanoid Robot Interaction},
  Author                   = {Hiroshi Ishiguro and Shuichi Nishio and Antonio Chella and Rosario Sorbello and Giuseppe Balistreri and Marcello Giardina and Carmelo Cali},
  Booktitle                = {The 12th International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems},
  Year                     = {2012},

  Address                  = {Jeju International Convention Center, Korea},
  Month                    = Jun,
  Pages                    = {409-421},
  Publisher                = {Springer Berlin Heidelberg},
  Series                   = {Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing},
  Volume                   = {194},

  Abstract                 = {The present paper aims at a descriptive analysis of the main perceptual and social features of natural conditions of agent interaction, which can be specified by agent in human- humanoid robot interaction. A principled approach to human- robot interaction may be assumed to comply with the natural conditions of agents overt perceptual and social behaviour. To validate our research we used the minimalistic humanoid robot Telenoid. We have conducted human-robot interactions test with people with no prior interaction experience with robot. By administrating our questionnaire to subject after well defined experimental conditions, an analysis of significant variance corre- lation among dimensions in ordinary and goal guided contexts of interaction has been performed in order to prove that perception and believability are indicators of social interaction and increase the degree of interaction in human-humanoid interaction. The experimental results showed that Telenoid is seen from the users as an autonomous agent on its own rather than a teleoperated artificial agent and as a believable agent for its naturally acting in response to human agent actions.},
  Day                      = {26-29},
  Doi                      = {10.1007/978-3-642-33932-5_38},
  File                     = {Ishiguro2012.pdf:Ishiguro2012.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Keywords                 = {Telenoid, Geminoid, Human Robot Interaction, Social Robot, Humanoid Robot},
  Reviewed                 = {Y},
  Url                      = {http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-33932-5_38}
}
Ryuji Yamazaki, Shuichi Nishio, Kohei Ogawa, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Kohei Matsumura, Kensuke Koda, Tsutomu Fujinami, "How Does Telenoid Affect the Communication between Children in Classroom Setting ?", In Extended Abstracts of the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Austin, Texas, USA, pp. 351-366, May, 2012.
Abstract: Recent advances in robotics have produced kinds of robots that are not only autonomous but can also tele- operated and have humanlike appearances. However, it is not sufficiently investigated how the tele-operated humanoid robots can affect and be accepted by people in a real world. In the present study, we investigated how elementary school children accepted Telenoid R1, a tele-operated humanoid robot. We conducted a school-based action research project to explore their responses to the robot. Our research theme was the social aspects that might facilitate communication and the purpose was problem finding. There have been considerable studies for resolving the remote disadvantage; although face-to-face is always supposed to be the best way for our communication, we ask whether it is possible to determine the primacy of remote communication over face-to-face. As a result of the field experiment in a school, the structure of children's group work changed and their attitude turned more positive than usual. Their spontaneity was brought out and role differentiation occurred with them. Mainly due to the limitations by Telenoid, children changed their attitude and could cooperatively work. The result suggested that the remote communication that set a limit to our capability could be useful for us to know and be trained the effective way to work more cooperatively than usual face-to-face. It remained as future work to compare Telenoid with various media and to explore the appropriate conditions that promote our cooperation.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Yamazaki2012,
  Title                    = {How Does Telenoid Affect the Communication between Children in Classroom Setting ?},
  Author                   = {Ryuji Yamazaki and Shuichi Nishio and Kohei Ogawa and Hiroshi Ishiguro and Kohei Matsumura and Kensuke Koda and Tsutomu Fujinami},
  Booktitle                = {Extended Abstracts of the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems},
  Year                     = {2012},

  Address                  = {Austin, Texas, {USA}},
  Month                    = May,
  Pages                    = {351-366},

  Abstract                 = {Recent advances in robotics have produced kinds of robots that are not only autonomous but can also tele- operated and have humanlike appearances. However, it is not sufficiently investigated how the tele-operated humanoid robots can affect and be accepted by people in a real world. In the present study, we investigated how elementary school children accepted Telenoid R1, a tele-operated humanoid robot. We conducted a school-based action research project to explore their responses to the robot. Our research theme was the social aspects that might facilitate communication and the purpose was problem finding. There have been considerable studies for resolving the remote disadvantage; although face-to-face is always supposed to be the best way for our communication, we ask whether it is possible to determine the primacy of remote communication over face-to-face. As a result of the field experiment in a school, the structure of children's group work changed and their attitude turned more positive than usual. Their spontaneity was brought out and role differentiation occurred with them. Mainly due to the limitations by Telenoid, children changed their attitude and could cooperatively work. The result suggested that the remote communication that set a limit to our capability could be useful for us to know and be trained the effective way to work more cooperatively than usual face-to-face. It remained as future work to compare Telenoid with various media and to explore the appropriate conditions that promote our cooperation.},
  Acknowledgement          = {This research was partially supported by {JST},{CREST}.},
  Day                      = {5-10},
  Doi                      = {10.1145/2212776.2212814},
  File                     = {Yamazaki2012.pdf:Yamazaki2012.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Keywords                 = {Tele-operation; android; minimal design; human interaction; role differentiation; cooperation},
  Reviewed                 = {Y},
  Url                      = {http://dl.acm.org/authorize?6764060}
}
Maryam Alimardani, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "BMI-teleoperation of androids can transfer the sense of body ownership", Poster presentation at Cognitive Neuroscience Society's Annual Meeting, Chicago, Illinois, USA, April, 2012.
Abstract: This work examines whether body ownership transfer can be induced by mind controlling android robots. Body ownership transfer is an illusion that happens for some people while tele-operating an android. They occasionally feel the robot's body has become a part of their own body and may feel a touch or a poke on robot's body or face even in the absence of tactile feedback. Previous studies have demonstrated that this feeling of ownership over an agent hand can be induced when robot's hand motions are in perfect synchronization with operator's motions. However, it was not known whether this occurs due to the agency of the motion or by proprioceptive feedback of the real limb. In this work however, subjects imagine their own right or left hand movement while watching android's corresponding hand moving according to the analysis of their brain activity. Through this research, we investigated whether elimination of proprioceptive feedback from operator's real limb can result in the illusion of ownership over external agent body. Evaluation was made by two measurement methods of questionnaire and skin conductance response and results from both methods proved a significant difference in intensity of bodily feeling transfer when the robot's hands moved according to participant's imagination.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Alimardani2012,
  author =    {Maryam Alimardani and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =     {{BMI}-teleoperation of androids can transfer the sense of body ownership},
  booktitle = {Cognitive Neuroscience Society's Annual Meeting},
  year =      {2012},
  address =   {Chicago, Illinois, {USA}},
  month =     Apr,
  abstract =  {This work examines whether body ownership transfer can be induced by mind controlling android robots. Body ownership transfer is an illusion that happens for some people while tele-operating an android. They occasionally feel the robot's body has become a part of their own body and may feel a touch or a poke on robot's body or face even in the absence of tactile feedback. Previous studies have demonstrated that this feeling of ownership over an agent hand can be induced when robot's hand motions are in perfect synchronization with operator's motions. However, it was not known whether this occurs due to the agency of the motion or by proprioceptive feedback of the real limb. In this work however, subjects imagine their own right or left hand movement while watching android's corresponding hand moving according to the analysis of their brain activity. Through this research, we investigated whether elimination of proprioceptive feedback from operator's real limb can result in the illusion of ownership over external agent body. Evaluation was made by two measurement methods of questionnaire and skin conductance response and results from both methods proved a significant difference in intensity of bodily feeling transfer when the robot's hands moved according to participant's imagination.},
  day =       {1},
  file =      {Alimardani2012.pdf:Alimardani2012.pdf:PDF},
}
Maryam Alimardani, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Body ownership transfer to tele-operated android through mind controlling", In HAI-2011, Kyoto Institute of Technology, pp. I-2A-1, December, 2011.
Abstract: This work examines whether body ownership transfer can be induced by mind controlling android robots. Body ownership transfer is an illusion that happens for some people while tele-operating an android. They occasionally feel the robot's body has become a part of their own body and may feel a touch or a poke on robot's body or face even in the absence of tactile feedback. Previous studies have demonstrated that this feeling of ownership over an agent hand can be induced when robot's hand motions are in synchronization with operator's motions. However, it was not known whether this occurs due to the agency of the motion or by proprioceptive feedback of the real hand. In this work, subjects imagine their own right or left hand movement while watching android's corresponding hand moving according to the analysis of their brain activity. Through this research, we investigated whether elimination of proprioceptive feedback from operator's real limb can result in the illusion of ownership over external agent body. Evaluation was made by two measurement methods of questionnaire and skin conductance response and results from both methods proved a significant difference in intensity of bodily feeling transfer participant's imagination.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Alimardani2011,
  author =          {Maryam Alimardani and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =           {Body ownership transfer to tele-operated android through mind controlling},
  booktitle =       {{HAI}-2011},
  year =            {2011},
  pages =           {I-2{A}-1},
  address =         {Kyoto Institute of Technology},
  month =           Dec,
  abstract =        {This work examines whether body ownership transfer can be induced by mind controlling android robots. Body ownership transfer is an illusion that happens for some people while tele-operating an android. They occasionally feel the robot's body has become a part of their own body and may feel a touch or a poke on robot's body or face even in the absence of tactile feedback. Previous studies have demonstrated that this feeling of ownership over an agent hand can be induced when robot's hand motions are in synchronization with operator's motions. However, it was not known whether this occurs due to the agency of the motion or by proprioceptive feedback of the real hand. In this work, subjects imagine their own right or left hand movement while watching android's corresponding hand moving according to the analysis of their brain activity. Through this research, we investigated whether elimination of proprioceptive feedback from operator's real limb can result in the illusion of ownership over external agent body. Evaluation was made by two measurement methods of questionnaire and skin conductance response and results from both methods proved a significant difference in intensity of bodily feeling transfer participant's imagination.},
  day =             {3-5},
  file =            {Alimardani2011.pdf:Alimardani2011.pdf:PDF;I-2A-1.pdf:http\://www.ii.is.kit.ac.jp/hai2011/proceedings/pdf/I-2A-1.pdf:PDF},
  url =             {http://www.ii.is.kit.ac.jp/hai2011/proceedings/html/paper/paper-1-2a-1.html}
}
Giuseppe Balistreri, Shuichi Nishio, Rosario Sorbello, Antonio Chella, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "A Natural Human Robot Meta-comunication through the Integration of Android's Sensors with Environment Embedded Sensors", In Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures 2011- Proceedings of the Second Annual Meeting of the BICA Society, IOS Press, vol. 233, Arlington, Virginia, USA, pp. 26-38, November, 2011.
Abstract: Building robots that closely resemble humans allow us to study phenom- ena in our daily human-to-human natural interactions that cannot be studied using mechanical-looking robots. This is supported by the fact that human-like devices can more easily elicit the same kind of responses that people use in their natural interactions. However, several studies supported that there is a strict and complex relationship between outer appearance and the behavior showed by the robot and, as Masahiro Mori observed, a human-like appearance is not enough for give a pos- itive impression. The robot should behave closely to humans, and should have a sense of perception that enables it to communicate with humans. Our past experi- ence with the android “Geminoid HI-1" demonstrated that the sensors equipping the robot are not enough to perform a human-like communication, mainly because of a limited sensing range. To overcome this problem, we endowed the environ- ment around the robot with perceptive capabilities by embedding sensors such as cameras into it. This paper reports a preliminary study about an improvement of the controlling system by integrating cameras in the surrounding environment, so that a human-like perception can be provided to the android. The integration of the de- velopment of androids and the investigations of human behaviors constitute a new research area fusing engineering and cognitive sciences.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Balistreri2011a,
  author =    {Giuseppe Balistreri and Shuichi Nishio and Rosario Sorbello and Antonio Chella and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =     {A Natural Human Robot Meta-comunication through the Integration of Android's Sensors with Environment Embedded Sensors},
  booktitle = {Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures 2011- Proceedings of the Second Annual Meeting of the {BICA} Society},
  year =      {2011},
  volume =    {233},
  pages =     {26-38},
  address =   {Arlington, Virginia, {USA}},
  month =     Nov,
  publisher = {{IOS} Press},
  abstract =  {Building robots that closely resemble humans allow us to study phenom- ena in our daily human-to-human natural interactions that cannot be studied using mechanical-looking robots. This is supported by the fact that human-like devices can more easily elicit the same kind of responses that people use in their natural interactions. However, several studies supported that there is a strict and complex relationship between outer appearance and the behavior showed by the robot and, as Masahiro Mori observed, a human-like appearance is not enough for give a pos- itive impression. The robot should behave closely to humans, and should have a sense of perception that enables it to communicate with humans. Our past experi- ence with the android “Geminoid HI-1" demonstrated that the sensors equipping the robot are not enough to perform a human-like communication, mainly because of a limited sensing range. To overcome this problem, we endowed the environ- ment around the robot with perceptive capabilities by embedding sensors such as cameras into it. This paper reports a preliminary study about an improvement of the controlling system by integrating cameras in the surrounding environment, so that a human-like perception can be provided to the android. The integration of the de- velopment of androids and the investigations of human behaviors constitute a new research area fusing engineering and cognitive sciences.},
  day =       {5-6},
  file =      {Balistreri2011a.pdf:Balistreri2011a.pdf:PDF},
  keywords =  {Android; gaze; sensor network},
}
Giuseppe Balistreri, Shuichi Nishio, Rosario Sorbello, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Integrating Built-in Sensors of an Android with Sensors Embedded in the Environment for Studying a More Natural Human-Robot Interaction", In Lecture Notes in Computer Science (12th International Conference of the Italian Association for Artificial Intelligence), Springer, vol. 6934, Palermo, Italy, pp. 432-437, September, 2011.
Abstract: Several studies supported that there is a strict and complex relationship between outer appearance and the behavior showed by the robot and that a human-like appearance is not enough for give a positive impression. The robot should behave closely to humans, and should have a sense of perception that enables it to communicate with humans. Our past experience with the android ``Geminoid HI-1'' demonstrated that the sensors equipping the robot are not enough to perform a human-like communication, mainly because of a limited sensing range. To overcome this problem, we endowed the environment around the robot with per- ceptive capabilities by embedding sensors such as cameras into it. This paper reports a preliminary study about an improvement of the control- ling system by integrating cameras in the surrounding environment, so that a human-like perception can be provided to the android. The inte- gration of the development of androids and the investigations of human behaviors constitute a new research area fusing engineering and cognitive sciences.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Balistreri2011,
  author =    {Giuseppe Balistreri and Shuichi Nishio and Rosario Sorbello and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =     {Integrating Built-in Sensors of an Android with Sensors Embedded in the Environment for Studying a More Natural Human-Robot Interaction},
  booktitle = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science (12th International Conference of the Italian Association for Artificial Intelligence)},
  year =      {2011},
  volume =    {6934},
  pages =     {432--437},
  address =   {Palermo, Italy},
  month =     Sep,
  publisher = {Springer},
  abstract =  {Several studies supported that there is a strict and complex relationship between outer appearance and the behavior showed by the robot and that a human-like appearance is not enough for give a positive impression. The robot should behave closely to humans, and should have a sense of perception that enables it to communicate with humans. Our past experience with the android ``Geminoid HI-1'' demonstrated that the sensors equipping the robot are not enough to perform a human-like communication, mainly because of a limited sensing range. To overcome this problem, we endowed the environment around the robot with per- ceptive capabilities by embedding sensors such as cameras into it. This paper reports a preliminary study about an improvement of the control- ling system by integrating cameras in the surrounding environment, so that a human-like perception can be provided to the android. The inte- gration of the development of androids and the investigations of human behaviors constitute a new research area fusing engineering and cognitive sciences.},
  bibsource = {DBLP, http://dblp.uni-trier.de},
  doi =       {10.1007/978-3-642-23954-0_43},
  file =      {Balistreri2011.pdf:Balistreri2011.pdf:PDF},
  keywords =  {Android; gaze; sensor network},
  url =       {http://www.springerlink.com/content/c015680178436107/}
}
Kohei Ogawa, Shuichi Nishio, Kensuke Koda, Koichi Taura, Takashi Minato, Carlos T. Ishi, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Telenoid: Tele-presence android for communication", In SIGGRAPH Emerging Technology, Vancouver, Canada, pp. 15, August, 2011.
Abstract: In this research, a new system of telecommunication called "Telenoid" is presented which focuses on the idea of transferring human's "presence". Telenoid was developed to appear and behave as a minimal design of human features. (Fig. 2(A)) A minimal human conveys the impression of human existence at first glance, but it doesn't suggest anything about personal features such as being male or female, old or young. Previously an android with more realistic features called Geminoid was proposed. However, because of its unique appearance, which is the copy of a model, it is too difficult to imagine other people's presence through Geminoid while they are operating it. On the other hand, Telenoid is designed as it holds an anonymous identity, which allows people to communicate with their acquaintances far away regardless of their gender and age. We expect that the Telenoid can be used as a medium that transfers human's presence by its minimal feature design.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Ogawa2011a,
  Title                    = {Telenoid: Tele-presence android for communication},
  Author                   = {Kohei Ogawa and Shuichi Nishio and Kensuke Koda and Koichi Taura and Takashi Minato and Carlos T. Ishi and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  Booktitle                = {{SIGGRAPH} Emerging Technology},
  Year                     = {2011},

  Address                  = {Vancouver, Canada},
  Month                    = Aug,
  Pages                    = {15},

  Abstract                 = {In this research, a new system of telecommunication called "Telenoid" is presented which focuses on the idea of transferring human's "presence". Telenoid was developed to appear and behave as a minimal design of human features. (Fig. 2(A)) A minimal human conveys the impression of human existence at first glance, but it doesn't suggest anything about personal features such as being male or female, old or young. Previously an android with more realistic features called Geminoid was proposed. However, because of its unique appearance, which is the copy of a model, it is too difficult to imagine other people's presence through Geminoid while they are operating it. On the other hand, Telenoid is designed as it holds an anonymous identity, which allows people to communicate with their acquaintances far away regardless of their gender and age. We expect that the Telenoid can be used as a medium that transfers human's presence by its minimal feature design.},
  Acknowledgement          = {JST/CREST},
  Day                      = {7-11},
  Doi                      = {10.1145/2048259.2048274},
  File                     = {Ogawa2011a.pdf:Ogawa2011a.pdf:PDF},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Reviewed                 = {Y},
  Url                      = {http://dl.acm.org/authorize?6594082}
}
Ilona Straub, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Incorporated identity in interaction with a teleoperated android robot: A case study", In IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, Viareggio, Italy, pp. 139-144, September, 2010.
Abstract: In near future artificial social agents embodied as virtual agents or as robots with humanoid appearance, will be placed in public settings and used as interaction tools. Considering the uncanny-valley-effect or images of robots as threat for humanity, a study about the acceptance and handling of such an interaction tool in the broad public is of great interest. The following study is based on qualitative methods of interaction analysis focusing on tendencies of peoples' ways to control or perceive a teleoperated android robot in an open public space. This field study shows the tendency of the users to ascribe an own identity to the teleoperated android robot Geminoid HI-1, which is independent from the identity of the controlling person. Both sides of the interaction unit were analyzed for 1) verbal cues about identity presentation on the side of the teleoperator, controlling the robot and for 2) verbal cues about identity perception of Geminoid HI-1 from the side of the interlocutor talking to the robot. The study unveils identity-creation, identity-switching, identity-mediation and identity-imitation of the teleoperators' own identity cues and the use of metaphorical language of the interlocutors showing forms to anthropomorphize and mentalize the android robot whilst interaction. Both sides of the interaction unit thus confer an `incorporated identity' towards the android robot Geminoid HI-1 and unveil tendencies to treat the android robot as social agent.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Straub2010a,
  author =          {Ilona Straub and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =           {Incorporated identity in interaction with a teleoperated android robot: A case study},
  booktitle =       {{IEEE} International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication},
  year =            {2010},
  pages =           {139--144},
  address =         {Viareggio, Italy},
  month =           Sep,
  abstract =        {In near future artificial social agents embodied as virtual agents or as robots with humanoid appearance, will be placed in public settings and used as interaction tools. Considering the uncanny-valley-effect or images of robots as threat for humanity, a study about the acceptance and handling of such an interaction tool in the broad public is of great interest. The following study is based on qualitative methods of interaction analysis focusing on tendencies of peoples' ways to control or perceive a teleoperated android robot in an open public space. This field study shows the tendency of the users to ascribe an own identity to the teleoperated android robot Geminoid HI-1, which is independent from the identity of the controlling person. Both sides of the interaction unit were analyzed for 1) verbal cues about identity presentation on the side of the teleoperator, controlling the robot and for 2) verbal cues about identity perception of Geminoid HI-1 from the side of the interlocutor talking to the robot. The study unveils identity-creation, identity-switching, identity-mediation and identity-imitation of the teleoperators' own identity cues and the use of metaphorical language of the interlocutors showing forms to anthropomorphize and mentalize the android robot whilst interaction. Both sides of the interaction unit thus confer an `incorporated identity' towards the android robot Geminoid HI-1 and unveil tendencies to treat the android robot as social agent.},
  doi =             {10.1109/ROMAN.2010.5598695},
  file =            {Straub2010a.pdf:Straub2010a.pdf:PDF},
  issn =            {1944-9445},
  keywords =        {Geminoid HI-1;artificial social agent robot;identity-creation;identity-imitation;identity-mediation;identity-switching;interaction tool analysis;metaphorical language;qualitative methods;teleoperated android robot;virtual agents;human-robot interaction;humanoid robots;telerobotics;},
  url =             {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=5598695}
}
Christian Becker-Asano, Kohei Ogawa, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Exploring the uncanny valley with Geminoid HI-1 in a real-world application", In IADIS International Conference on Interfaces and Human Computer Interaction, Freiburg, Germany, pp. 121-128, July, 2010.
Abstract: This paper presents a qualitative analysis of 24 interviews with visitors of the ARS Electronica festival in September 2009 in Linz, Austria, who interacted with the android robot Geminoid HI-1, while it was tele-operated by the first author. Only 37.5\% of the interviewed visitors reported an uncanny feeling with 29\% even enjoying the conversation. In five cases the interviewees' feelings even changed during the interaction with Geminoid HI-1. A number of possible improvements regarding Geminoid's bodily movements, facial expressivity, and ability to direct its gaze became apparent, which inform our future research with and development of android robots.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Becker-Asano2010,
  author =    {Christian Becker-Asano and Kohei Ogawa and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =     {Exploring the uncanny valley with Geminoid {HI}-1 in a real-world application},
  booktitle = {{IADIS} International Conference on Interfaces and Human Computer Interaction},
  year =      {2010},
  pages =     {121--128},
  address =   {Freiburg, Germany},
  month =     Jul,
  abstract =  {This paper presents a qualitative analysis of 24 interviews with visitors of the ARS Electronica festival in September 2009 in Linz, Austria, who interacted with the android robot Geminoid {HI-1}, while it was tele-operated by the first author. Only 37.5\% of the interviewed visitors reported an uncanny feeling with 29\% even enjoying the conversation. In five cases the interviewees' feelings even changed during the interaction with Geminoid {HI-1}. A number of possible improvements regarding Geminoid's bodily movements, facial expressivity, and ability to direct its gaze became apparent, which inform our future research with and development of android robots.},
  file =      {Becker-Asano2010.pdf:Becker-Asano2010.pdf:PDF},
  url =       {http://www.iadisportal.org/digital-library/exploring-the-uncanny-valley-with-geminoid-hi-1-in-a-real-world-application}
}
Ilona Straub, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Incorporated Identity in Interaction with a Teleoperated Android Robot: A Case Study", In International Conference on Culture and Computing, Kyoto, Japan, pp. 63-75, February, 2010.
Abstract: In near future artificial social agents embodied as virtual agents or as robots with humanoid appearance, will be placed in public settings and used as interaction tools. Considering the uncanny-valley-effect or images of robots as threat for humanity, a study about the acceptance and handling of such an interaction tool in the broad public is of great interest. The following study is based on qualitative methods of interaction analysis focusing on tendencies of peoples' ways to control or perceive a teleoperated android robot in an open public space. This field study shows the tendency of the users to ascribe an own identity to the teleoperated android robot Geminoid HI-1, which is independent from the identity of the controlling person. Both sides of the interaction unit were analyzed for 1) verbal cues about identity presentation on the side of the teleoperator, controlling the robot and for 2) verbal cues about identity perception of Geminoid HI-1 from the side of the interlocutor talking to the robot. The study unveils identity-creation, identity-switching, identity-mediation and identity-imitation of the teleoperators' own identity cues and the use of metaphorical language of the interlocutors showing forms to anthropomorphize and mentalize the android robot whilst interaction. Both sides of the interaction unit thus confer an `incorporated identity' towards the android robot Geminoid HI-1 and unveil tendencies to treat the android robot as social agent.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Straub2010,
  author =    {Ilona Straub and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =     {Incorporated Identity in Interaction with a Teleoperated Android Robot: A Case Study},
  booktitle = {International Conference on Culture and Computing},
  year =      {2010},
  pages =     {63--75},
  address =   {Kyoto, Japan},
  month =     Feb,
  abstract =  {In near future artificial social agents embodied as virtual agents or as robots with humanoid appearance, will be placed in public settings and used as interaction tools. Considering the uncanny-valley-effect or images of robots as threat for humanity, a study about the acceptance and handling of such an interaction tool in the broad public is of great interest. The following study is based on qualitative methods of interaction analysis focusing on tendencies of peoples' ways to control or perceive a teleoperated android robot in an open public space. This field study shows the tendency of the users to ascribe an own identity to the teleoperated android robot Geminoid HI-1, which is independent from the identity of the controlling person. Both sides of the interaction unit were analyzed for 1) verbal cues about identity presentation on the side of the teleoperator, controlling the robot and for 2) verbal cues about identity perception of Geminoid HI-1 from the side of the interlocutor talking to the robot. The study unveils identity-creation, identity-switching, identity-mediation and identity-imitation of the teleoperators' own identity cues and the use of metaphorical language of the interlocutors showing forms to anthropomorphize and mentalize the android robot whilst interaction. Both sides of the interaction unit thus confer an `incorporated identity' towards the android robot Geminoid HI-1 and unveil tendencies to treat the android robot as social agent.},
  file =      {Straub2010.pdf:Straub2010.pdf:PDF},
}
Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Miranda Anderson, Norihiro Hagita, "Expressing individuality through teleoperated android: a case study with children", In IASTED International Conference on Human Computer Interaction, ACTA Press, Innsbruck, Autria, pp. 297-302, March, 2008.
Abstract: When utilizing robots as communication interface medium, the appearance of the robots, and the atmosphere or sense of presence they express will be one of the key issues in their design. Just like each person holds his/her own individual impressions they give when having a conversation with others, it might be effective for robots to hold a suitable sense of individuality, in order to effectively communicate with humans. In this paper, we report our investigation on the key elements for representing personal presence, which we define as the sense of being with a certain individual, and eventually implement them into robots. A case study is reported in which children performed daily conversational tasks with a geminoid, a teleoperated android robot that resembles a living individual. Different responses to the geminoid and the original person are examined, especially concentrating on the case where the target child was the daughter of the geminoid source. Results showed that children gradually became adapted to conversation with the geminoid, but the operator's personal presence was not completely represented. Further research topics on the adaptation process to androids and on seeking for the key elements on personal presence are discussed.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Nishio2008,
  author =    {Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro and Miranda Anderson and Norihiro Hagita},
  title =     {Expressing individuality through teleoperated android: a case study with children},
  booktitle = {{IASTED} International Conference on Human Computer Interaction},
  year =      {2008},
  pages =     {297--302},
  address =   {Innsbruck, Autria},
  month =     Mar,
  publisher = {{ACTA} Press},
  abstract =  {When utilizing robots as communication interface medium, the appearance of the robots, and the atmosphere or sense of presence they express will be one of the key issues in their design. Just like each person holds his/her own individual impressions they give when having a conversation with others, it might be effective for robots to hold a suitable sense of individuality, in order to effectively communicate with humans. In this paper, we report our investigation on the key elements for representing personal presence, which we define as the sense of being with a certain individual, and eventually implement them into robots. A case study is reported in which children performed daily conversational tasks with a geminoid, a teleoperated android robot that resembles a living individual. Different responses to the geminoid and the original person are examined, especially concentrating on the case where the target child was the daughter of the geminoid source. Results showed that children gradually became adapted to conversation with the geminoid, but the operator's personal presence was not completely represented. Further research topics on the adaptation process to androids and on seeking for the key elements on personal presence are discussed.},
  file =      {Nishio2008.pdf:Nishio2008.pdf:PDF},
  keywords =  {android; human individuality; human-robot interaction; personal presence},
  url =       {http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1722359.1722414}
}
Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Miranda Anderson, Norihiro Hagita, "Representing Personal Presence with a Teleoperated Android: A Case Study with Family", In AAAI Spring Symposium on Emotion, Personality, and Social Behavior, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, USA, March, 2008.
Abstract: Our purpose is to investigate the key elements for representing personal presence, which we define as the sense of being with a certain individual, and eventually implement them into robots. In this research, a case study is reported in which children performed daily conversational tasks with a geminoid, a teleoperated android robot that resembles a living individual. Different responses to the geminoid and the original person are examined, especially concentrating on the case where the target child was the daughter of the geminoid source. Results showed that children gradually became adapted to conversation with the geminoid, but the operator's personal presence was not completely represented. Further research topics on the adaptation process to androids and on seeking for the key elements on personal presence are discussed.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Nishio2008a,
  author =          {Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro and Miranda Anderson and Norihiro Hagita},
  title =           {Representing Personal Presence with a Teleoperated Android: A Case Study with Family},
  booktitle =       {{AAAI} Spring Symposium on Emotion, Personality, and Social Behavior},
  year =            {2008},
  address =         {Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, {USA}},
  month =           Mar,
  abstract =        {Our purpose is to investigate the key elements for representing personal presence, which we define as the sense of being with a certain individual, and eventually implement them into robots. In this research, a case study is reported in which children performed daily conversational tasks with a geminoid, a teleoperated android robot that resembles a living individual. Different responses to the geminoid and the original person are examined, especially concentrating on the case where the target child was the daughter of the geminoid source. Results showed that children gradually became adapted to conversation with the geminoid, but the operator's personal presence was not completely represented. Further research topics on the adaptation process to androids and on seeking for the key elements on personal presence are discussed.},
  file =            {Nishio2008a.pdf:Nishio2008a.pdf:PDF},
}
Non-Reviewed Conference Papers
Ryuji Yamazaki, Shuichi Nishio, Kaiko Kuwamura, "Identity Construction of the Hybrid of Robot and Human", In 22nd IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, Workshop on Enhancement/Training of Social Robotics Teleoperation and its Applications, Gyeongju, Korea, August, 2013.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Yamazaki2013,
  Title                    = {Identity Construction of the Hybrid of Robot and Human},
  Author                   = {Ryuji Yamazaki and Shuichi Nishio and Kaiko Kuwamura},
  Booktitle                = {22nd IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, Workshop on Enhancement/Training of Social Robotics Teleoperation and its Applications},
  Year                     = {2013},

  Address                  = {Gyeongju, Korea},
  Month                    = Aug,

  Day                      = {26-29},
  Grant                    = {CREST},
  Language                 = {en}
}
Astrid M. von der Pütten, Christian Becker-Asano, Kohei Ogawa, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro, "Exploration and Analysis of People's Nonverbal Behavior Towards an Android", In the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Phoenix, USA, May, 2012.
BibTeX:
@InProceedings{Putten2012,
  author =    {Astrid M. von der P\"{u}tten and Christian Becker-Asano and Kohei Ogawa and Shuichi Nishio and Hiroshi Ishiguro},
  title =     {Exploration and Analysis of People's Nonverbal Behavior Towards an Android},
  booktitle = {the annual meeting of the International Communication Association},
  year =      {2012},
  address =   {Phoenix, USA},
  month =     May,
}